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Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediates lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling in a variety of cell types. MD-2 is associated with the extracellular domain of TLR4 and augments TLR4-dependent LPS responses in vitro. We show here that MD-2(-/-) mice do not respond to LPS, do survive endotoxic shock but are susceptible to Salmonella typhimurium infection. We found(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells participate in both innate and adaptive immunity through the prompt secretion of cytokines and ability to lyse virally infected cells or tumor cells. Although it has been well understood that lipid rafts (rafts) and a raft-associated linker for activation of T cells (LAT) plays a central role in TCR signal transduction, there are(More)
The ganglioside GM3 synthase (SAT-I), encoded by a single-copy gene, is a primary glycosyltransferase for the synthesis of complex gangliosides. In SAT-I null mice, hearing ability, assessed by brainstem auditory-evoked potentials (BAEP), was impaired at the onset of hearing and had been completely lost by 17 days after birth (P17), showing a deformity in(More)
In resting T cells, Csk is constitutively localized in lipid rafts by virtue of interaction with a phosphorylated adaptor protein, Csk-binding protein (Cbp)/phosphoprotein associated with glycolipid-enriched microdomains, and sets an activation threshold in TCR signaling. In this study, we examined a kinase responsible for Cbp phosphorylation in T cell(More)
Initial events of T-cell activation involve movement of the T-cell receptor into lipid rafts. Gangliosides are major components of lipid rafts. While investigating T-cell activation in ganglioside-deficient mice, we observed that CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells required different ganglioside subsets for activation. Activation of CD4(+) T cells from GM3(More)
Lck is a member of the Src family kinases expressed predominantly in T cells, and plays a pivotal role in TCR-mediated signal transduction. Myristoylation of glysine 2 in the N-terminal Src homology 4 (SH4) domain of Lck is essential for membrane localization and function. In this study, we examined a site within the SH4 domain of Lck regulating(More)
SUMMARY BACKGROUND Insulin resistance is a characteristic feature of metabolic syndrome. Ganglioside GM3 [α-Neu5Ac-(2-3)-β-Gal-(1-4)-β-Glc-(1-1)-ceramide] may impair insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. We investigated the relationship between serum GM3 levels and adiposity indices, as well as between serum GM3 levels and metabolic risk variables. (More)
Lipid rafts are known to aggregate in response to various stimuli. By way of raft aggregation after stimulation, signaling molecules in rafts accumulate and interact so that the signal received at a given membrane receptor is amplified efficiently from the site of aggregation. To elucidate the process of lipid raft aggregation during T cell activation, we(More)
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediates lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling in a variety of cell types. MD-2 is associated with the extracellular domain of TLR4 and augments TLR4-dependent LPS responses in vitro. Moreover, mice lacking MD-2 (MD-2(-/-)) do not respond to LPS, survive endotoxin shock, and are susceptible to Salmonella typhimurium infection. Here,(More)
Lipid rafts, specialized membrane microdomains enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol, have been shown to function as signaling platforms in T cells. Surface raft expression is known to be increased in human T cells upon activation, and this increased raft expression may account for efficient signaling capability and decreased dependency for(More)