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We investigated why the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of Aβ42 are lower in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Because Aβ38/42 and Aβ40/43 are distinct product/precursor pairs, these four species in the CSF together should faithfully reflect the status of brain γ-secretase activity, and were quantified by(More)
BACKGROUND Microdeletion and microduplication syndromes without characteristic dysmorphic features are difficult to diagnose without chromosomal microarrays. PATIENTS We describe the clinical course and genetic findings of monozygotic twins with intellectual disabilities and autistic features associated with mild facial dysmorphism and microdeletion of(More)
Among the various disorders manifesting dementia, gait disturbance, and urinary incontinence in the elderly population, idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is becoming of great importance. After the publication of the first edition of the Guidelines for Management of Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus in 2004 (the English version was(More)
The aim of this study was to determine whether the improvement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow dynamics by CSF shunting, can suppress the oligomerization of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), by measuring the levels of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related proteins in the CSF before and after lumboperitoneal shunting. Lumbar CSF from 32 patients with idiopathic normal(More)
BACKGROUND Cognitive impairment is difficult to improve after shunt operation in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). This study aims to identify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers predictive of improvement in cognitive function. METHODS This study was conducted between January 2008 and December 2010 on consecutive, unselected(More)
We investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 21 patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) and 14 controls without neurological disease. The concentrations of leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG), transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, 2, 3 and TGF-beta type II receptor (TbetaR-II) in CSF were measured using ELISA.(More)
Expression of cyclin dependent kinase cdk5 and its regulator p35 has been shown in the cytoplasm of adult neurons. Here we demonstrate that another potential regulator of cdk5, cyclin E, is expressed in the nervous system and forms complexes with cdk5. Western blot analyses identifies expression of two forms of cyclin E in the mouse nervous system with the(More)
BACKGROUND The pathogenesis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) is unknown, and the syndrome of INPH remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The present study investigated the disease-specific proteins that aid in the diagnosis and treatment of INPH and thus to study their role in the disease process. METHODS A comparative proteomic(More)
Leucine-rich α2-glycoprotein (LRG) is a protein induced by inflammation. It contains a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) structure and easily binds with other molecules. However, the function of LRG in the brain during aging and neurodegenerative diseases has not been investigated. Here, we measured human LRG (hLRG) concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)(More)
OBJECTIVE In Japan, idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) currently is treated mainly with lumboperitoneal (LP) shunts. Our aim was to evaluate whether LP shunting via the use of Medtronic Strata NSC programmable valves was as effective as ventriculoperitoneal shunting in the treatment of patients with iNPH from the perspectives of safety and(More)