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Cryopreserved human (h-) hepatocytes are currently regarded as the best in vitro model for predicting human intrinsic clearance of xenobiotics. Although fresh h-hepatocytes have greater plating efficiency on dishes and greater metabolic activities than cryopreserved cells, performing reproducible studies using fresh hepatocytes from the same donor and(More)
The induction of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes is one of the risk factors for drug-drug interactions (DDIs). To date, the human pregnane X receptor (PXR)-mediated CYP3A4 induction has been well studied. In addition to CYP3A4, the expression of CYP2C subfamily is also regulated by PXR, and the DDIs caused by the induction of CYP2C enzymes have been reported(More)
Human-specific or disproportionately abundant human metabolites of drug candidates that are not adequately formed and qualified in preclinical safety assessment species pose an important drug development challenge. Furthermore, the overall metabolic profile of drug candidates in humans is an important determinant of their drug-drug interaction(More)
Chimeric mice with humanized livers (PXB mice) are used to investigate the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of drugs in humans. However, residual murine enzymatic activities derived from the liver and the presence of mouse small intestinal metabolism can hamper the prediction of human drug metabolism. Recently murine Cytochrome P450 3a gene knockout chimeric(More)
INTRODUCTION Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) is isolated as an androgen-induced growth factor, and has recently been shown to contribute to limb morphogenesis. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of FGF8 in animal models of osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS The expression of FGF8 in the partial meniscectomy model of OA in the rabbit knee was(More)
OBJECTIVE Recent studies have demonstrated that genetic polymorphisms near the IL28B gene are associated with the clinical outcome of pegylated interferon α (peg-IFN-α) plus ribavirin therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, it is unclear whether genetic variations near the IL28B gene influence hepatic interferon (IFN)-stimulated(More)
We previously produced mice with human hepatocyte (h-hep) chimeric livers by transplanting h-heps into albumin enhancer/promoter-driven urokinase-type plasminogen activator-transgenic severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with liver disease. The chimeric livers were constructed with h-heps, mouse hepatocytes, and mouse hepatic sinusoidal cells(More)
We performed in vivo and in vitro studies to determine the induction of human cytochrome P450 (CYP) using chimeric mice with humanized liver (PXB-mice®) and human hepatocytes isolated from the PXB-mice (PXB-cells), which were derived from the same donor. For the in vivo study, PXB-mice were injected with 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC, 2 or 20 mg/kg) or(More)
Tree shrews possess an intestinal diverticulum. We investigated this diverticulum with histological and immunohistochemical methods to determine whether this diverticulum was cecum or not. The ratio of the length of diverticulum/small intestine was apparently shorter than that of several primates. In the histological study, mucous membrane of the small(More)
Troglitazone (Tro) is a thiazolidinedione antidiabetic drug that was withdrawn from the market due to its association with idiosyncratic severe liver injury. Tro has never induced liver injury in experimental animals in vivo. It was assumed that the species differences between human and experimental animals in the pharmaco- or toxicokinetics of Tro might be(More)