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The Polycomb group (PcG) gene products regulate the maintenance of the homeobox gene expression in Drosophila and vertebrates and also the cell cycle progression in thymocytes and Th2 cell differentiation in mature T cells. We herein studied the role of PcG gene bmi-1 product in Th1/Th2 cell differentiation and found that Bmi-1 facilitates Th2 cell(More)
The administration of concanavalin A (Con A) induces a rapid severe injury of hepatocytes in mice. Although the Con A-induced hepatitis is considered to be an experimental model of human autoimmune hepatitis, the precise cellular and molecular mechanisms that induce hepatocyte injury remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Valpha14 NKT cells are required(More)
Murine V ␣ 14 natural killer T (NKT) cells are thought to play a crucial role in various immune responses, including infectious, allergic, and autoimmune diseases. Because V ␣ 14 NKT cells produce large amounts of both interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-␥ upon in vivo stimulation with a specific ligand, ␣-galactosylceramide (␣-GalCer), or after(More)
Polycomb group (PcG) and trithorax group (TrxG) complexes exert opposing effects on the maintenance of the transcriptional status of the developmentally regulated Hox genes. In this study, we show that activation of STAT6 induces displacement of the PcG complex by the TrxG complex at the upstream region of the gene encoding GATA3, a transcription factor(More)
The activation of downstream signaling pathways of both T cell receptor (TCR) and interleukin 4 receptor (IL-4R) is essential for T helper type 2 (Th2) cell development, which is central to understanding immune responses against helminthic parasites and in allergic and autoimmune diseases. However, little is known about how these two distinct signaling(More)
The maintenance of memory T cells is central to the establishment of immunological memory, although molecular details of the process are poorly understood. In the absence of the polycomb group (PcG) gene Bmi1, the number of memory CD4(+) T helper (Th)1/Th2 cells was reduced significantly. Enhanced cell death of Bmi1(-/-) memory Th2 cells was observed both(More)
During development in the thymus, mature CD4+ or CD8+ cells are derived from immature CD4+CD8+ cells through a series of selection events. One of the hallmarks of this maturation process is the expression of CD69, which first appears on thymocytes as they begin positive selection. We have used blockade and overexpression of CD69 to determine the role of(More)
Schnurri (Shn) is a large zinc finger protein implicated in cell growth, signal transduction, and lymphocyte development. Vertebrates possess at least three Shn orthologues (Shn-1, Shn-2, and Shn-3), which appear to act within the bone morphogenetic protein, transforming growth factor beta, and activin signaling pathways. However, the physiological(More)
NK cells differentiate into either NK1 or NK2 cells that produce IFN-gamma or IL-5 and IL-13, respectively. Little is known, however, about the molecular mechanisms that control NK1 and NK2 cell differentiation. To address these questions, we established an in vitro mouse NK1/NK2 cell differentiation culture system. For NK1/NK2 cell differentiation, initial(More)
Airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness are central issues in the pathogenesis of asthma. CD69 is a membrane molecule transiently expressed on activated lymphocytes, and its selective expression in inflammatory infiltrates suggests that it plays a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. In CD69-deficient mice, OVA-induced eosinophilic(More)