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Differentiation of naive CD4 T cells into type 2 helper (Th2) cells is accompanied by chromatin remodeling of Th2 cytokine gene loci. Hyperacetylation of histone H3 on nucleosomes associated with the interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13 and IL-5 genes was observed in developing Th2 cells but not in Th1 cells. Histone hyperacetylation on IL-5 gene-associated(More)
The Polycomb group (PcG) gene products regulate the maintenance of the homeobox gene expression in Drosophila and vertebrates and also the cell cycle progression in thymocytes and Th2 cell differentiation in mature T cells. We herein studied the role of PcG gene bmi-1 product in Th1/Th2 cell differentiation and found that Bmi-1 facilitates Th2 cell(More)
IL-4 plays an important role in the induction of Th2 and Th9 cells, as well as in the inhibition of Th1 cell generation. We show that a combination of IL-4 and TGF-β augments the development of Th1 cells that express CD103 (CD103(+) Th1 cells) if IFN-γ is present. The T-box-containing transcription factor eomesodermin (Eomes) is preferentially expressed in(More)
The administration of concanavalin A (Con A) induces a rapid severe injury of hepatocytes in mice. Although the Con A-induced hepatitis is considered to be an experimental model of human autoimmune hepatitis, the precise cellular and molecular mechanisms that induce hepatocyte injury remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Valpha14 NKT cells are required(More)
Both CD4 and CD8 T cells play crucial roles in immune responses in transplantation. Immunosuppressive drugs, such as FK506 and cyclosporin A, block the priming of alloreactive CD4 T(h) cells and the subsequent induction of allospecific CD8 cytotoxic effector T cells and inhibit allograft rejection. However, the desire to minimize chronic complications that(More)
Differentiation of naive CD4 T cells into Th2 cells requires protein expression of GATA3. Interleukin-4 induces STAT6 activation and subsequent GATA3 transcription. Little is known, however, on how T cell receptor-mediated signaling regulates GATA3 and Th2 cell differentiation. Here we demonstrated that T cell receptor-mediated activation of the Ras-ERK(More)
The Mixed-Lineage Leukemia (MLL) gene, a mammalian homolog of the Drosophila trithorax, is implicated in regulating the maintenance of Hox gene expression and hematopoiesis. The physiological functions of MLL in the immune system remain largely unknown. Although MLL(+/-) CD4 T cells differentiate normally into antigen-specific effector Th1/Th2 cells in(More)
BACKGROUND Certain immune functions are known to be impaired in human beings exposed to Antarctic winter; in particular, decreased amounts of serum proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-alpha and IL-1, were noted. It is not known, however, whether this exposure has any effect on T-cell-mediated acquired immune functions. OBJECTIVES This study aims to(More)
T helper type 2 (Th2) cells produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and play an important role in humoral immunity and allergic reactions. During Th2 cell differentiation, naïve CD4 T cells acquire 'Th2 cell identity', that is, the capability to produce selectively a large amount of Th2 cytokines. Th2 cell identity is maintained in memory Th2 cells. Significant(More)
Allergic asthma is an airway inflammatory disease characterized by chronically increased expression of multiple inflammatory proteins, including cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, enzymes, and receptors. Several transcription factors are known to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma, including(More)