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In the brain, enormous numbers of neurons have functional individuality and distinct circuit specificities. Clustered Protocadherins (Pcdhs), diversified cell-surface proteins, are stochastically expressed by alternative promoter choice and affect dendritic arborization in individual neurons. Here we found that the Pcdh promoters are differentially(More)
Vertebrate brains exhibit vast amounts of anatomical diversity. In particular, the elaborate and complex nervous system of amniotes is correlated with the size of their behavioral repertoire. However, the evolutionary mechanisms underlying species-specific brain morphogenesis remain elusive. In this review we introduce reptiles as a new model organism for(More)
We developed a convenient method for purification of PA-oligosaccharides to remove contaminants originating from natural fluorescent materials, and excess reagents as well as by-products of tagging reactions in glycan analysis. The method, using a C18-cartridge, is simple and powerful to remove them. Several examples of experiments that showed the(More)
Caenorhabditis elegans is an excellent model for morphogenetic research. However, little information is available on the structure of cell-surface glycans in C. elegans, although several lines of evidence have suggested a role for these glycans in cell-cell interactions during development. In this study, we analyzed N-glycan structures. Oligosaccharides(More)
A Lotus japonicus mutant, Ljsym75, which forms ineffective symbiotic nodules and defines a new locus involved in the process of nitrogen fixation, was characterized in detail in order to identify the stage of developmental arrest of the nodules. No nitrogen-fixing activity was detectable in Ljsym75 nodules at any stage during plant development, and plant(More)
The generation of complex neural circuits depends on the correct wiring of neurons with diverse individual characteristics. To understand the complexity of the nervous system, the molecular mechanisms for specifying the identity and diversity of individual neurons must be elucidated. The clustered protocadherins (Pcdh) in mammals consist of approximately 50(More)
Lotus japonicus has attracted attention as a model plant legume for molecular genetic research, and several mutants defective in nodulation and mycorrhizal symbiosis have been developed from the standard accession Gifu B-129. However, as a model system, Gifu has long lacked an appropriate crossing partner for use in various genetic analyses. In a search for(More)
The protocadherin-alpha (Pcdh-alpha) gene encodes diverse transmembrane proteins that are differentially expressed in individual neurons in the vertebrate central nervous system. The Pcdh-alpha genomic structure contains variable first exons, each regulated by its own promoter. Here, we investigated the effect of DNA methylation on gene regulation in the(More)
The cadherin-related neuronal receptor (CNR)/protocadherin (Pcdh) alpha family is one of the diverse protocadherin families expressed in developing axons. We observed a strong axonal expression of these proteins at late embryonic and early postnatal stages corresponding to regions where fibers had not yet been myelinated. We therefore followed the postnatal(More)
The mouse protocadherin (Pcdh) clusters, Pcdh-alpha, -beta, and -gamma, are located on chromosome 18. Many polymorphic variations are found in the Pcdh-alpha genes in wild-derived and laboratory mouse strains. In comparing the expression levels of Pcdh-alpha isoforms among several strains, we observed lower expression levels of Pcdh-alpha9 in BLG2 and(More)