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A dramatic increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) occurs in eggs at fertilization common to all animal species examined to date, and this serves as a pivotal signal for egg activation characterized by resumption of meiotic cell division and formation of the pronuclei. In mammalian eggs, repetitive [Ca(2+)](i) rises (Ca(2+)(More)
Several lines of epidemiological evidence have suggested that non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is closely associated with obesity in humans. However, the precise mechanisms of the progression of NASH and its key metabolic abnormalities remain to be elucidated. We found that long-term high-fat diet (HFD) exposure induces NASH, with excess body weight,(More)
To assess the contribution of potential central nervous system pathways implicated in the control of appetite regulation and energy metabolism, it is essential to first identify appropriate animal models. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), a conserved cyclic neuropeptide implicated in the modulation of food intake, has been shown to bind and activate two(More)
Mouse phospholipase C, zeta 1 (PLCZ1), a strong candidate of egg-activating sperm factor, induces Ca(2+) oscillations and accumulates into formed pronucleus (PN) when expressed by cRNA injection. These activities were compared among mouse and human PLCZ1, newly cloned rat Plcz1, and medaka fish plcz1. The PLCZ1 proteins of the four species have an(More)
We propose a method to detect the model, location and activity of a conventional home electric appliance. Waveforms of current consumed by appliances vary according to their configurations and activity. We define feature parameters for detecting the status of appliances. A current detector, microcomputer and transmitter are equipped in a power outlet in(More)
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic orexigenic peptide expressed in the lateral hypothalamus. Recently, we demonstrated that chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of MCH induced obesity accompanied by sustained hyperphagia in mice. Here, we analyzed the mechanism of MCH-induced obesity by comparing animals fed ad libitum with pair-fed and(More)
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic amino acid neuropeptide localized in the lateral hypothalamus. Although MCH is thought to be an important regulator of feeding behavior, the involvement of this peptide in body weight control has been unclear. To examine the role of MCH in the development of obesity, we assessed the effect of chronic(More)
Intracellular Ca2+ oscillations in fertilized mammalian eggs, the key signal that stimulates egg activation and early embryonic development, are regulated by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) signaling pathway. We investigated temporal changes in intracellular IP3 concentration ([IP3]i) in mouse eggs, using a fluorescent probe based on fluorescence(More)
Membrane fusion is an essential step in the encounter of two nuclei from sex cells-sperm and egg-in fertilization. However, aside from the involvement of two molecules, CD9 and Izumo, the mechanism of fusion remains unclear. Here, we show that sperm-egg fusion is mediated by vesicles containing CD9 that are released from the egg and interact with sperm. We(More)
Blockade of brain melanin-concentrating hormone 1 receptor (MCH1R) significantly ameliorates fatty liver as well as obesity. However, the mode of action of this effect is unknown. This study examined the effect of a MCH1R antagonist in murine steatohepatitis models with and without obesity and clarified whether these pharmacological effects were attributed(More)