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NOD2, a protein associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease, confers responsiveness to bacterial preparations of lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan, but the precise moiety recognized remains elusive. Biochemical and functional analyses identified muramyl dipeptide (MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoGln) derived from peptidoglycan as the essential structure in(More)
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein 1 (NOD1) belongs to a family that includes multiple members with NOD and leucine-rich repeats in vertebrates and plants. NOD1 has been suggested to have a role in innate immune responses, but the mechanism involved remains unknown. Here we report that NOD1 mediates the recognition of peptidoglycan derived(More)
Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a cell surface glycoconjugate of gram-positive bacteria and is reported to activate the innate immune system. We previously reported that purified LTA obtained from Enterococcus hirae has no immunostimulating activity, but a subfraction (Eh-AF) in an LTA fraction possesses activity. In this study, we established a mouse monoclonal(More)
Bacterial fimbriae are associated with a specific adherence factor, adhesin, in their microbial etiology. Porphyromonas gingivalis, as an anaerobic Gram-negative periodontopathogenic organism, is known to possess fimbriae on its cell surfaces. In this study, we demonstrated that P. gingivalis fimbriae and an active synthetic peptide composed of residues 69(More)
Host innate immune responses to microbial components, known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), are regulated and modified by cellular receptors and serum proteins, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), CD14, and LPS-binding protein (LBP). We demonstrated that a treponemal membrane lipid inhibited PAMPs-induced immune responses. The chemical(More)
Spirochetes are well-known as causative agents of various chronic infectious diseases. Glycolipids of small-sized Treponema spirochetes have been shown to exhibit immunostimulating activities. In this study, we found that a glycoconjugate preparation obtained from Treponema medium (Tm-Gp), an intermediate-sized oral Treponema seen in subgingival plaque from(More)
Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and its bioactive center, lipid A, are known to exhibit very low endotoxic activities and activate LPS-hyporesponsive C3H/HeJ mice that have a point mutation in the cytoplasmic portion of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, in contrast to classical enterobacterial LPS and their lipid A. In the present study, we(More)
Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that can colonize the nasal cavity, skin, intestine, and oral cavity as a commensal bacterium. gp340, also known as DMBT1 (deleted in malignant brain tumors 1), is associated with epithelial differentiation and innate immunity. In the oral cavity, gp340 induces salivary aggregation with several oral bacteria(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preparations from the periodontopathic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg-LPS) are thought to require Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 rather than TLR4, a receptor of Escherichia coli LPS (Ec-LPS), for activation of immune cells. However, we previously reported that P. gingivalis lipid A, an immunostimulatory principal component of(More)
We recently demonstrated that a new PG1828-encoded lipoprotein (PG1828LP) was able to be separated from a Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preparation, and we found that it exhibited strong cell activation, similar to that of Escherichia coli LPS, through a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent pathway. In order to determine the virulence(More)