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Heart rate (HR) and arterial blood pressure (BP) changes have been reported during conscious sedation with propofol and midazolam. One potential mechanism to explain these changes is that propofol and midazolam affect HR and BP via changes in the cardiac autonomic nervous system. Two specific hypotheses were tested by HR variability analysis: 1) propofol(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether lidocaine could be transported through excised rat skin in vitro using alternating current (AC). In addition, the relationships between factors such as voltage and frequency, and transported lidocaine concentration were studied using the in vitro model. A pair of platinum plate electrodes was installed at(More)
1. In an attempt to clarify whether glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a survival factor for subpopulations of primary afferent neurons, is involved in the states of neuropathic pain, we observed changes in the expressions of GDNF and its signal-transducing receptor Ret after nerve injury in two rat models of neuropathic pain. 2. In the(More)
BACKGROUND Diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC) is thought to be mediated by neural networks in supraspinal brain structures. The descending antinociceptive system (DAS) is an important component of the DNIC neural network, but the precise structure of the neural network and the related neurotransmitters have not been examined. METHODS The study was(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacies of 2 topical anesthetics commonly used in dentistry. STUDY DESIGN The alveolar mucosa of the upper incisor apices of 20 healthy male volunteers was applied for 20 minutes with either 20% benzocaine gel or nothing as a control. The second part of experiment was done with 60% lidocaine gel(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in endocrine responses, blood loss and arterial blood gas profiles between patients subjected to hypotensive anaesthesia or normotensive anaesthesia and those between patients given sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or nitroglycerin (NTG) as the hypotensive agent. 36 patients, who were scheduled to undergo(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine whether lidocaine can be efficiently transported across a cellophane membrane using a square-wave alternating current (AC) with an adjusted duty cycle. Three voltages at 1 kHz with 6 duty cycles were applied for 60 min to the diffusion cells on both sides of the cellophane membrane. The donor chamber was filled(More)
Several clinical reports have suggested that there is a hyperactivation of the dopaminergic system in people with autism. Using rats exposed prenatally to valproic acid (VPA) as an animal model of autism, we measured dopamine (DA) levels in samples collected from the frontal cortex (FC) using in vivo microdialysis and HPLC. The basal DA level in FC was(More)
Serotonergic (5-HT) neurons are implicated in modulating nociceptive transmission. It is established that 5-HT neuronal activity is enhanced by rhythmic behaviors such as chewing and locomotion in animals. We thus hypothesized that 5-HT descending inhibitory pathways may be enhanced by rhythmic behavior of gum chewing in humans. To evaluate this idea, we(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the late component of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) induced by electrical tooth stimulation and pain intensity are inhibited by heterotopic ischemic stimulation. The tourniquet pressure with 50 mmHg greater than the individual's systolic pressure was applied to the left upper arm for 10 min as(More)