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MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are non-coding RNAs 18-25 nt in length, regulate a variety of biological processes, including vertebrate development. To identify new species of miRNA and to simultaneously obtain a comprehensive quantitative profile of small RNA expression in mouse embryos, we used the massively parallel signature sequencing technology that(More)
Neurotrophins (NTs) have multiple roles in retinal development and survival, which are mediated through their specific receptors and signaling molecules. An emerging family of adapter protein, Shc (Src homology and collagen)-related molecules, i.e., Shc/ShcA, Sck/ShcB, and N-Shc/ShcC, has been implicated in various phosphotyrosine signal transduction(More)
N-Shc (neural Shc) (also ShcC), an adapter protein possessing two phosphotyrosine binding motifs [PTB (phosphotyrosine binding) and SH2 (Src homology 2) domains], is predominantly expressed in mature neurons of the CNS and transmits neurotrophin signals from the TrkB receptor to the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, leading to cellular(More)
Mouse transgenesis has proven invaluable for analysis of gene function and generation of human disease models. We describe here the development of a pronuclear injection-based targeted transgenesis (PITT) system, involving site-specific integration in fertilized eggs. The system was applied to two different genomic target loci to generate a series of(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies have shown that skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) can give rise to several cell lineages after transplantation. However, the potential therapeutic uses of MDSCs, the functional significance of the transplanted tissue, and vasculogenesis, myogenesis, and reconstitution of other tissues have yet to be investigated in detail.(More)
BACKGROUND Activation of the heart renin-angiotensin system (RAS) under pathophysiological conditions has been correlated with the development of ischemic injury. The binding of angiotensin II to its receptors triggers induction of several, perhaps multifunctional, intracellular signaling pathways, notable among them the Janus kinase/signal transducer and(More)
Calcium plays a fundamental role as second messenger in intracellular signaling and bone serves as the body's calcium reserve to tightly maintain blood calcium levels. Calcium in ingested meal is the main supply and inadequate calcium intake causes osteoporosis and bone fracture. Here, we describe a novel mechanism of how ingested calcium is deposited on(More)
BACKGROUND Microinjection of clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-related RNA and DNA into fertilized eggs is a novel approach for creating gene-modified mice. Blastocysts obtained just before implantation may be appropriate for testing the fidelity of CRIPSR/Cas9-mediated genome editing(More)
When a sperm and oocyte unite into one cell upon fertilization, membranous fusion between the sperm and oocyte occurs. In mice, Izumo1 and a tetraspanin molecule CD9 are required for sperm-oocyte fusion as one of the oocyte factors, and another tetraspanin molecule CD81 is also thought to involve in this process. Since these two tetraspanins often form a(More)
Knockdown mouse models, where gene dosages can be modulated, provide valuable insights into gene function. Typically, such models are generated by embryonic stem (ES) cell-based targeted insertion, or pronuclear injection, of the knockdown expression cassette. However, these methods are associated with laborious and time-consuming steps, such as the(More)