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While studies of the adaptor SH3BP2 have implicated a role in receptor-mediated signaling in mast cells and lymphocytes, they have failed to identify its function or explain why SH3BP2 missense mutations cause bone loss and inflammation in patients with cherubism. We demonstrate that Sh3bp2 "cherubism" mice exhibit trabecular bone loss, TNF-alpha-dependent(More)
Toll-like receptor-7 (TLR7) and 9, innate immune sensors for microbial RNA or DNA, have been implicated in autoimmunity. Upon activation, TLR7 and 9 are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to endolysosomes for nucleic acid sensing by an ER-resident protein, Unc93B1. Little is known, however, about a role for sensor transportation in controlling(More)
An investigation of p53 gene mutation by single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction products followed by direct sequencing and of murine double minute 2 (mdm-2) gene amplification by Southern blot analysis was performed, using a series of hamster pancreatic duct adenocarcinomas: 18 primary adenocarcinomas induced by(More)
Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) senses microbial-derived RNA but can also potentially respond to self-derived RNA. To prevent autoimmune responses, TLR7 is thought to localize in endolysosomes. Contrary to this view, we show here that TLR7 is present on the cell surface of immune cells and that TLR7 responses can be inhibited by an anti-TLR7 antibody. The(More)
Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is an innate immune sensor for microbial DNA that erroneously responds to self DNA in autoimmune disease. To prevent autoimmune responses, Toll-like receptor 9 is excluded from the cell surface and silenced until the N-terminal half of the ectodomain (TLR9N) is cleaved off in the endolysosome. Truncated Toll-like receptor 9(More)
Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) an innate immune sensor for microbial RNA, erroneously responds to self-derived RNA. To avoid autoimmune responses, TLR7 is suggested to be silenced until the N-terminal half of the TLR7 ectodomain (TLR7N) is cleaved off. Resultant truncated TLR7 (TLR7C) is thought to signal microbial RNA. We here show that TLR7N remains(More)
DNase II digests DNA in endolysosomes. In the absence of DNase II, undigested DNA activates cytoplasmic DNA-sensing pathways. Little is known, however, about the role of DNase II in endolysosomal DNA sensing by TLR9. Here we show that DNase II is required for TLR9. We test two types of TLR9 ligands, CpG-A and CpG-B, and show that only CpG-A response is(More)
TLR9 senses microbial DNA, but may also respond to self-DNA. To prevent the initiation of innate immune responses to self-DNA, TLR9 is thought to sense microbial DNA in endolysosomes, and not at the cell surface. A report by Lindau et al. in this issue of the European Journal of Immunology [Eur. J. Immunol. 2013. 43: 2101-2113] shows that TLR9 is expressed(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM Video-capsule endoscopy (VCE) has shown that intestinal ulcers are common in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) users, although the mechanisms and management have not been clearly defined. To explore the contribution of oxidative stress and potential of anti-oxidants for NSAIDs-induced intestinal ulcers, we assessed human(More)
AIM The average age of Japanese patients with drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is expected to rise as the population ages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of DILI in elderly Japanese subjects. METHODS A total of 142 hospitalized patients with DILI were divided into three groups by age (Group A, < 65 years; Group B, 65-74(More)