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Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a newly discovered hypothalamic RFamide peptide, inhibits reproductive activity by decreasing gonadotropin synthesis and release in birds. The gene of the mammalian RFamide-related peptides (RFRP) is orthologous to the GnIH gene. This Rfrp gene gives rise to the two biologically active peptides RFRP-1 (NPSF) and(More)
BACKGROUND We used fullerenes, whose dispersion at the nano-level was stabilized by grinding in nitrogen gas in an agitation mill, to conduct an intratracheal instillation study and an inhalation exposure study. Fullerenes were individually dispersed in distilled water including 0.1% Tween 80, and the diameter of the fullerenes was 33 nm. These suspensions(More)
We evaluated the pulmonary pathological features of rats that received a single intratracheal instillation and a 4-week inhalation of a fullerene. We used fullerene C(60) (nanom purple; Frontier Carbon Co. Ltd, Japan) in this study. Male Wistar rats received intratracheal dose of 0.1, 0.2, or 1 mg of C(60), and were sacrificed at 3 days, 1 week, 1 month, 3(More)
The extracellular matrix of the alga Botryococcus braunii, Race B, consists mainly of botryococcenes, which have potential as a hydrocarbon fuel. Botryococcenes are structurally similar to squalene raising the possibility of a common enzyme for the biosynthesis of both. While B. braunii squalene synthase (SS) enzyme activity has been documented,(More)
Linear and cyclic polylactic acids (PLAs) were characterized using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) as part of our ongoing investigation of the hydrolysis mechanism of biodegradable polymers. The condensation oligomers of linear polylactic acid (LPLA) were synthesized by thermal dehydration of L-lactic acid. The trimer and tetramer base(More)
Microarrays have been extensively used to investigate genome-wide expression patterns. Although this technology has been tremendously successful, several practical issues would benefit from improvements in design. Here we describe a novel, efficient labeling methodology that uses carbodiimide-linked cyanine dyes to directly chemically label cDNA derived(More)
BACKGROUND Neointimal vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is a primary cause of occlusive vascular disease, including atherosclerosis, restenosis after percutaneous interventions, and bypass graft stenosis. Angiogenesis is implicated in the progression of early atheromatous lesions in animal models, but its role in neointimal VSMC proliferation(More)
The integrity of the endothelial monolayer is essential to blood vessel homeostasis and active regulation of endothelial permeability. The FGF system plays important roles in a wide variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions; however, its role in the adult vasculature has not been defined. To assess the role of the FGF system in the adult endothelial(More)
Identification of the hydrolytic enzymes involved in follicle rupture during vertebrate ovulation remains a central challenge for research in reproductive biology. Here, we report a previously uncharacterized approach to this problem by using an in vitro ovulation system in the medaka, Oryzias latipes, which is a small freshwater teleost. We found that(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Fibroblast growth factors are potent angiogenic inducers; however, their precise roles in angiogenesis have not been well understood. In this review, we will focus on specific roles played by fibroblast growth factors in neovascularization. RECENT FINDINGS Although fibroblast growth factors promote a strong angiogenic response, it has(More)