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Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a newly discovered hypothalamic RFamide peptide, inhibits reproductive activity by decreasing gonadotropin synthesis and release in birds. The gene of the mammalian RFamide-related peptides (RFRP) is orthologous to the GnIH gene. This Rfrp gene gives rise to the two biologically active peptides RFRP-1 (NPSF) and(More)
BACKGROUND We used fullerenes, whose dispersion at the nano-level was stabilized by grinding in nitrogen gas in an agitation mill, to conduct an intratracheal instillation study and an inhalation exposure study. Fullerenes were individually dispersed in distilled water including 0.1% Tween 80, and the diameter of the fullerenes was 33 nm. These suspensions(More)
Modafinil is a novel wake-promoting drug used for the treatment of narcolepsy, the mechanism of action of which remains unclear. Previous studies have shown that modafinil produces a different pattern of c-Fos activation in the brain to the classical stimulants amphetamine and methylphenidate. Modafinil, given i.p. to urethane-anesthetized rats, is(More)
Glucocorticoid secretion is a key endocrine response to stress. It has been reported that prenatal stress induces long-lasting alterations in body weight regulation systems, which persist after the stress has ceased. In this study, the long-term effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure on body weight changes and the expression of appetite-regulating(More)
BACKGROUND Neointimal vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is a primary cause of occlusive vascular disease, including atherosclerosis, restenosis after percutaneous interventions, and bypass graft stenosis. Angiogenesis is implicated in the progression of early atheromatous lesions in animal models, but its role in neointimal VSMC proliferation(More)
Whereas fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) classically transmit their signals via high-affinity tyrosine kinase receptors (FGFR1-4), recent evidence strongly implicates non-tyrosine kinase receptors (NTKR) or cell-surface FGFR-interacting proteins as important players in FGF signalling. Although NTKR have lower affinity for FGFs in comparison with cognate(More)
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is an important risk factor for the pathogenesis of diseases after birth. Long-lasting alterations in the structure and function of tissues and the neuroendocrine system, which are known as 'programming effects', increase the risks of these diseases. To investigate the pathophysiology of programming effects, several(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate two-dimensional (2D) multi-detector row computed tomographic (CT) angiography and three-dimensional (3D) volume rendering for depiction of patterns of arterial growth and quantification of blood vessel density and volume. MATERIALS AND METHODS The institutional animal care and use committee approved this study. The right femoral artery(More)
Astrocytes play an important role in antigen presentation to T lymphocytes by their ability to express major histocompatibility class II (Ia) antigen upon exposure to a number of agents, including interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Astrocytes have been shown to express a variety of voltage-sensitive ion channels including voltage-sensitive K+ channels. The(More)
Oxytocin (OT) affects the central nervous system and is involved in a variety of social and non-social behaviors. Recently, the role played by OT in energy metabolism and its organizational effects on estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) during the neonatal period have gained attention. In this study, the developmental changes in the hypothalamic mRNA levels of(More)