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Valley of familiarity There are mathematical functions of the form y = f(x) for which the value of y increases (or decreases) continuously with the value of x. For example, as the effort x increases, income y increases, or as a car's accelerator is pressed, the car moves faster. This kind of relationship is ubiquitous and easily understood. In fact, it(More)
To study the epidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in Japan, we conducted two nationwide surveys between October 1986 and March 1989. A total of 710 patients with HAM (definite HAM, 589; probable HAM, 121) were reported. Of the 589 patients with definite HAM, 69% were(More)
Electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of glycine receptors were characterized in hippocampal organotypic slice cultures. In the presence of ionotropic glutamate and GABA(B) receptor antagonists, pressure-application of glycine onto CA3 pyramidal cells induced a current associated with increased chloride conductance, which was inhibited by(More)
The hippocampus, a brain structure essential for memory and cognition, is classically represented as a trisynaptic excitatory circuit. Recent findings challenge this view, particularly with regard to the mossy fibre input to CA3, the second synapse in the trisynaptic pathway. Thus, the powerful mossy fibre input to CA3 pyramidal cells might mediate both(More)
Masahiro Mori observed that as robots come to look more humanlike, they seem more familiar, until a point is reached at which subtle deviations from human norms cause them to look creepy. He referred to this dip in familiarity and corresponding surge in strangeness as the uncanny valley. The eerie sensation associated with a mismatch between human(More)
1. A fast ATP-mediated synaptic current was identified in CA3 pyramidal cells in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. In the presence of inhibitors for ionotropic glutamate and GABA receptors, extracellular stimulation in the pyramidal cell layer evoked fast synaptic currents that reversed near 0 mV, reflecting an increase in a non-selective cationic(More)
Since a deep involvement of astrocytes, a kind of glial cells, in differentiation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been suggested, we examined the relation of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) to the BBB. First, immunohistochemical examination of the cerebral cortex of rats revealed that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor(More)
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Correlated network activity is important in the development of many neural circuits. Purkinje cells are among the first neurons to populate the cerebellar cortex, where they sprout exuberant axon collaterals. We used multiple patch-clamp recordings targeted with two-photon microscopy to characterize monosynaptic connections between the Purkinje cells of(More)