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Valley of familiarity There are mathematical functions of the form y = f(x) for which the value of y increases (or decreases) continuously with the value of x. For example, as the effort x increases, income y increases, or as a car's accelerator is pressed, the car moves faster. This kind of relationship is ubiquitous and easily understood. In fact, it(More)
The hippocampus, a brain structure essential for memory and cognition, is classically represented as a trisynaptic excitatory circuit. Recent findings challenge this view, particularly with regard to the mossy fibre input to CA3, the second synapse in the trisynaptic pathway. Thus, the powerful mossy fibre input to CA3 pyramidal cells might mediate both(More)
To study the epidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in Japan, we conducted two nationwide surveys between October 1986 and March 1989. A total of 710 patients with HAM (definite HAM, 589; probable HAM, 121) were reported. Of the 589 patients with definite HAM, 69% were(More)
Electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of glycine receptors were characterized in hippocampal organotypic slice cultures. In the presence of ionotropic glutamate and GABA(B) receptor antagonists, pressure-application of glycine onto CA3 pyramidal cells induced a current associated with increased chloride conductance, which was inhibited by(More)
Masahiro Mori observed that as robots come to look more humanlike, they seem more familiar, until a point is reached at which subtle deviations from human norms cause them to look creepy. He referred to this dip in familiarity and corresponding surge in strangeness as the uncanny valley. The eerie sensation associated with a mismatch between human(More)
The hippocampal CA3 area, an associational network implicated in memory function, receives monosynaptic excitatory as well as disynaptic inhibitory input through the mossy-fiber axons of the dentate granule cells. Synapses made by mossy fibers exhibit low release probability, resulting in high failure rates at resting discharge frequencies of 0.1 Hz. In(More)
Free amino acid composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the rat was measured to examine if electrical activity of neurons in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) is modulated by amino acids at CSF levels. In CSF collected through a cannula in the cerebromedullary cistern of freely moving rats, the total concentration of amino acids was 979(More)
Melanoma-derived lipoprotein lipase inhibitor (MLPLI) is a factor purified from the conditioned medium of a human melanoma cell line, SEKI, which induced severe cachexia in tumor-bearing nude mice. Amino acid sequencing revealed that the amino-terminal portion was identical to that of leukemia-inhibitory factor (LIF). To determine whether MLPLI is actually(More)
Nesfatin-1 is a novel satiety molecule in the hypothalamus and is also present in peripheral tissues. Here we sought to identify the active segment of nesfatin-1 and to determine the mechanisms of its action after peripheral administration in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of nesfatin-1 suppressed food intake in a dose-dependent manner. Nesfatin-1 has(More)
A vacuole-formation substance, cereulide of Bacillus cereus, is an emetic toxin in animals. Both oral administration and intraperitoneal injection of cereulide caused dose-dependent emesis in Suncus murinus, a new animal model of emesis. Vagotomy or a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist completely abolished this emetic effect. Therefore, cereulide causes emesis(More)