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SMAD proteins have been identified as signalling mediators of the TGF-beta superfamily, which is involved in a range of biological activities including cell growth, morphogenesis, development and immune responses. Smad1, Smad2, Smad3 and Smad5 are ligand-specific: Smadl and Smad5 transduce signals from bone morphogenetic proteins, and Smad2 and Smad3(More)
TGF-beta signals from the membrane to the nucleus through serine/threonine kinase receptors and their downstream effectors, termed SMAD proteins. The activated TGF-beta receptor induces phosphorylation of two such proteins, Smad2 and Smad3, which form hetero-oligomeric complex(es) with Smad4/DPC4 that translocate to the nucleus, where they then regulate(More)
The cytokines LIF (leukemia inhibitory factor) and BMP2 (bone morphogenetic protein-2) signal through different receptors and transcription factors, namely STATs (signal transducers and activators of transcription) and Smads. LIF and BMP2 were found to act in synergy on primary fetal neural progenitor cells to induce astrocytes. The transcriptional(More)
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are pleiotropic growth and differentiation factors belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily. Signals of the TGF-beta-like ligands are propagated to the nucleus through specific interaction of transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptors and Smad proteins. GCCGnCGC has been suggested as a(More)
We previously demonstrated that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce cardiomyocyte differentiation through the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase TAK1. Transcription factors Smads mediate transforming growth factor-beta signaling and the ATF/CREB family transcription factor ATF-2 has recently been shown to act as a common target of the Smad(More)
Presenilin 1 (PS1) is the causative gene for an autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) mapped to chromosome 14. Here we show that QM/Jun-interacting factor (Jif)-1, a negative regulator of c-Jun, is a candidate to mediate the function of PS1 in the cell. We screened for proteins that bind to PS1 from a human embryonic brain cDNA library using(More)
The biological effects of type I serine/threonine kinase receptors and Smad proteins were examined using an adenovirus-based vector system. Constitutively active forms of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptors (BMPR-IA and BMPR-IB; BMPR-I group) and those of activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)-1 and ALK-2 (ALK-1 group) induced alkaline phosphatase(More)
Smad proteins are signal transducers for the members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily. Here we show that, in the absence TGF-beta stimulation, Smads exist as monomers in vivo. Smad2 and Smad3 form homo-oligomers upon phosphorylation by the constitutively active TGF-beta type I receptor, and this oligomerization does not require(More)
Cell proliferation and differentiation are regulated by growth regulatory factors such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and the liphophilic hormone vitamin D. TGF-beta causes activation of SMAD proteins acting as coactivators or transcription factors in the nucleus. Vitamin D controls transcription of target genes through the vitamin D receptor(More)
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta plays a major role in the development of vascular diseases. Despite the pleiotropic effects of TGF-ss on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), only a few genes have been characterized as direct targets of TGF-beta in VSMCs. Cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP) has been thought to be expressed exclusively in the heart.(More)