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Recent studies show that dendritic spines are dynamic structures. Their rapid creation, destruction and shape-changing are essential for short- and long-term plasticity at excitatory synapses on pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex. The onset of long-term potentiation, spine-volume growth and an increase in receptor trafficking are coincident, enabling(More)
NAL Numerical Wind Tunnel (NWT) is a distributed memory parallel computer developed through joint research and development of NAL and Fujitsu. It is based on the analysis of CFD codes developed in NAL. The target performance is more than 100 times faster than VP400.In this paper, the parallel computation model employed in the development of the NWT is(More)
To represent both the basin-scale circulation in the ocean and the local small-scale variations at the same time, a high resolution global ocean general circulation model (OGCM) is essential. Recent progress in parallel computing techniques together with the high ability of computer itself makes it possible to use such a high resolution OGCM for climate(More)
Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is a light-driven proton pump and a model membrane transport protein. We used time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography at an x-ray free electron laser to visualize conformational changes in bR from nanoseconds to milliseconds following photoactivation. An initially twisted retinal chromophore displaces a conserved tryptophan(More)
NarK belongs to the nitrate/nitrite porter (NNP) family in the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) and plays a central role in nitrate uptake across the membrane in diverse organisms, including archaea, bacteria, fungi and plants. Although previous studies provided insight into the overall structure and the substrate recognition of NarK, its molecular(More)
BACKGROUND The number of elderly type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Japan is increasing continuously. Hypoglycemia is a significant issue in their treatment. However, the actual situation and related details of their hypoglycemia remain unclear. In order to elucidate them, the Japan Physicians Association conducted a large-scale questionnaire(More)
PURPOSE Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can evaluate internal tissue structures of the cornea, such as collagen fibers, by phase retardation measurement. In this study, we assessed the repeatability of corneal phase retardation measurements using anterior segment PS-OCT. METHODS A total of 173 eyes of 173 patients were(More)
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