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Upon exposure to various environmental stresses such as arsenite, hypoxia, and heat shock, cells inhibit their translation and apoptosis and then repair stress-induced alterations, such as DNA damage and the accumulation of misfolded proteins. These types of stresses induce the formation of cytoplasmic RNA granules called stress granules (SGs). SGs are(More)
AIMS Clinical use of olanzapine has been suggested to be associated with weight gain and adiposity in schizophrenic patients. While studies in experimental animals have noted weight gain in olanzapine-treated female rats, these findings have yet to be replicated in males. This study investigated the effect of chronic subcutaneous infusion of olanzapine in(More)
While human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), HTLV-2 has not been reported to be associated with such malignant leukemias. HTLV-1 Tax1 oncoprotein transforms a rat fibroblast cell line (Rat-1) to form multiple large colonies in soft agar, and this activity is much greater than that of(More)
Survivin, a unique member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, is overexpressed in many cancers and considered to play an important role in oncogenesis. We previously reported the survivin expression profile in ATL, a CD4-positive T-cell malignancy caused by HTLV-I. HTLV-I Tax is thought to play an important role in immortalization of T cells. We(More)
Cells can undergo two alternative fates following exposure to environmental stress: they either induce apoptosis or inhibit apoptosis and then repair the stress-induced alterations. These processes minimize cell loss and prevent the survival of cells with aberrant DNA and protein alterations. These two alternative fates are partly controlled by stress(More)
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). HTLV-1 encoded Tax1 oncoprotein activates the transcription of genes involved in cell growth and anti-apoptosis through the NF-κB pathway, and is thought to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ATL. While Tax1 expression is usually lost or(More)
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), whereas HTLV type 2 (HTLV-2), is not associated with ATL or any other leukemia. HTLV-1 encodes the transforming gene tax1, whose expression in an interleukin (IL)-2-dependent T-cell line (CTLL-2) induces IL-2-independent growth. In this study, we demonstrated(More)
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) but not HTLV-2 is associated with adult T-cell leukemia, and the distinct pathogenicity of these two closely related viruses is thought to stem from the distinct biological functions of the respective transforming proteins, HTLV-1 Tax1 and HTLV-2 Tax2. In this study, we demonstrate that Tax1 but not Tax2 interacts(More)
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), whereas its relative HTLV-2 is not associated with any malignancies including ATL. HTLV-1 Tax1 transformed a T-cell line from interleukin (IL)-2-dependent growth to IL-2-independent growth, with an activity that was much more potent in comparison to HTLV-2 Tax2.(More)
Using Vero cells, we isolated a virus (NII561-2000) from a cerebrospinal fluid specimen of a 1-year-old girl with Reye syndrome. The determined amino acid sequence of the virus indicated that the isolate was a human parechovirus (HPeV), a member of Picornaviridae. Neutralization test showed that the NII561-2000 virus had distinct antigenicity to HPeV-1,(More)