Masahiro Azuma

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We recently developed a cell culture system for hepatitis E virus (HEV) in PLC/PRF/5 and A549 cells, using fecal specimens from HEV-infected patients. Since transfusion-associated hepatitis E has been reported, we examined PLC/PRF/5 and A549 cells for the ability to support replication of HEV in various serum samples obtained from 23 patients with genotype(More)
Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mDCs) recognize viral RNA extrinsically by Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 on the membrane and intrinsically retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)/melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) in the cytoplasm to induce type I IFNs and mDC maturation. When mDCs were treated with live or UV-irradiated respiratory syncytial(More)
To investigate the duration of fecal shedding and changing loads of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in feces and serum from patients with acute HEV infection, HEV RNA was quantitated in periodic serum and fecal specimens obtained from 11 patients with sporadic acute hepatitis E. All 11 patients had detectable HEV RNA in serum at admission, with the highest viral(More)
In myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), TLR3 is expressed in the endosomal membrane and interacts with the adaptor toll/interleukin 1 receptor homology domain-containing adaptor molecule 1 (TICAM-1; TRIF). TICAM-1 signals culminate in interferon (IFN) regulatory factor (IRF) 3 activation. Co-culture of mDC pretreated with the TLR3 ligand polyI:C and natural(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocyte effectors that are activated to control certain microbial infections and tumors. Many NK-activating and regulating receptors are involved in regulating NK cell function. In addition, activation of naïve NK cells is fundamentally triggered by cytokines or myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) in various modes. In this study,(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease. The innate immune system is essential for controlling HCV replication, and HCV is recognized by RIG-I and TLR3, which evoke innate immune responses through IPS-1 and TICAM-1 adaptor molecules, respectively. IL-28B is a type III IFN, and genetic polymorphisms upstream of its gene are strongly(More)
*Correspondence to: Tsukasa Seya; Email: Submitted: 05/28/12; Accepted: 06/22/12 The engagement of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) leads to the oligomerization of the adaptor TICAM-1 (TRIF), which can induces either of three acute cellular responses, namely, cell survival coupled to Type I(More)
Ligand stimulation of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) triggers innate immune response, cytokine production and cellular immune activation in dendritic cells. However, most TLR ligands are microbial constituents, which cause inflammation and toxicity. Toxic response could be reduced for secure immunotherapy through the use of chemically synthesized ligands(More)
Successful cancer immunotherapy necessitates T cell proliferation and infiltration into tumor without exhaustion, a process closely links optimal maturation of dendritic cells (DC), and adjuvant promotes this process as an essential prerequisite. Poly(I:C) has contributed to adjuvant immunotherapy that evokes an antitumor response through the Toll-loke(More)