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To investigate the duration of fecal shedding and changing loads of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in feces and serum from patients with acute HEV infection, HEV RNA was quantitated in periodic serum and fecal specimens obtained from 11 patients with sporadic acute hepatitis E. All 11 patients had detectable HEV RNA in serum at admission, with the highest viral(More)
In myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), TLR3 is expressed in the endosomal membrane and interacts with the adaptor toll/interleukin 1 receptor homology domain-containing adaptor molecule 1 (TICAM-1; TRIF). TICAM-1 signals culminate in interferon (IFN) regulatory factor (IRF) 3 activation. Co-culture of mDC pretreated with the TLR3 ligand polyI:C and natural(More)
We recently developed a cell culture system for hepatitis E virus (HEV) in PLC/PRF/5 and A549 cells, using fecal specimens from HEV-infected patients. Since transfusion-associated hepatitis E has been reported, we examined PLC/PRF/5 and A549 cells for the ability to support replication of HEV in various serum samples obtained from 23 patients with genotype(More)
Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mDCs) recognize viral RNA extrinsically by Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 on the membrane and intrinsically retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)/melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) in the cytoplasm to induce type I IFNs and mDC maturation. When mDCs were treated with live or UV-irradiated respiratory syncytial(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocyte effectors that are activated to control certain microbial infections and tumors. Many NK-activating and regulating receptors are involved in regulating NK cell function. In addition, activation of naïve NK cells is fundamentally triggered by cytokines or myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) in various modes. In this study,(More)
The aging suppressor geneKlotho is predominantly expressed in the kidney irrespective of species. Because Klotho protein is an essential component of an endocrine axis that regulates renal phosphate handling, the kidney-specific expression is biologically relevant; however, little is known about its underlying mechanisms. Here we provide in vitro and in(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease. The innate immune system is essential for controlling HCV replication, and HCV is recognized by RIG-I and TLR3, which evoke innate immune responses through IPS-1 and TICAM-1 adaptor molecules, respectively. IL-28B is a type III IFN, and genetic polymorphisms upstream of its gene are strongly(More)
Ligand stimulation of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) triggers innate immune response, cytokine production and cellular immune activation in dendritic cells. However, most TLR ligands are microbial constituents, which cause inflammation and toxicity. Toxic response could be reduced for secure immunotherapy through the use of chemically synthesized ligands(More)