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The identification of surface proteins restricted to subsets of embryonic axons and growth cones may provide information on the mechanisms underlying axon fasciculation and pathway selection in the vertebrate nervous system. We describe here the characterization of a 135 kd cell surface glycoprotein, TAG-1, that is expressed transiently on subsets of(More)
The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are key receptors in the modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Here we have determined three different crystal structures of the extracellular ligand-binding region of mGluR1--in a complex with glutamate and in two unliganded forms. They all showed disulphide-linked(More)
The monoclonal antibody RC2 was generated in mouse by conventional hybridoma methodology. The antigen recognized by RC2 is robust, allowing aldehyde fixation appropriate to high resolution light and electron microscopic analyses. From the neural tube stage of fetal development the antibody delineates throughout the central nervous system a subpopulation of(More)
Radial glial cells of the embryonic murine cerebral wall are selectively labeled by staining with antibody RC1. In order to study the mitotic cycling of these cells, we combined RC1 immunohistochemistry and autoradiographic analysis following [3H]thymidine injection at 1, 2, 6, 48 h prior to sacrifice. Many radial glial cells, i.e. RC1-positive cells,(More)
The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) of the MAP kinase superfamily is activated in response to a variety of cellular stresses and is involved in apoptosis in neurons. However, the roles of the JNK signaling pathway in the nervous system are unknown. The genes for the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of JNK, JNK-1, and its direct activator, JKK-1, were isolated(More)
A monoclonal antibody, RC1, has been generated which provides a selective and sensitive immunohistochemical marker of radial glial cells and related cell forms during development of the mouse CNS. Beginning on embryonic day E10, immunocytochemistry performed on cryostat sections stains throughout the CNS a subpopulation of cells in the ventricular zone with(More)
A monoclonal antibody, 4D7, obtained with embryonic rat brain as an immunogen, recognizes an epitope on 3 protein species of 150-160, 100-110, and 80 kDa, present in mouse and rat brain during the fetal period. Vital immunostaining of dissociated cultures of fetal forebrain indicates that the antigen is localized largely on the external plasma membrane of a(More)
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked motor neuronopathy caused by the expansion of an unstable CAG repeat in the coding region of the androgen receptor (AR) gene. To study AR protein expression in normal and SBMA individuals, we used several antibodies that recognize AR protein, and analyzed neural and nonneural tissues by(More)
OBJECTIVES AND METHODS Seven families were studied with an axonal form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) associated with mutations in the peripheral myelin protein zero (MPZ) gene-Thr124Met or Asp75Val. RESULTS Patients with these mutations commonly showed relatively late onset sensorimotor neuropathy predominantly involving the lower limbs. Sensory(More)
To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximately 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential(More)