Masahiko Takada

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Neurotransmission in the hippocampus is modulated variously through presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). To establish the precise localization of presynaptic mGluRs in the rat hippocampus, we used subtype-specific antibodies for eight mGluRs (mGluR1-mGluR8) for immunohistochemistry combined with lesioning of the three major hippocampal(More)
How the motor-related cortical areas modulate the activity of the output nuclei of the basal ganglia is an important issue for understanding the mechanisms of motor control by the basal ganglia. The cortico-subthalamo-pallidal 'hyperdirect' pathway conveys powerful excitatory effects from the motor-related cortical areas to the globus pallidus, bypassing(More)
Taking advantage of the restricted expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 6 (mGluR6) in retinal ON bipolar cells, we generated knockout mice lacking mGluR6 expression. The homozygous mutant mice showed a loss of ON responses but unchanged OFF responses to light. The mutant mice displayed no obvious changes in retinal cell organization nor in(More)
The noncoding control region of the mitochondrial DNA of various gallinaceous birds was studied with regard to its restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequences of the first 400 bases. Tandem duplication of the 60-base unit was established as a trait unique to the genus Gallus, which is shared neither by pheasants nor by quails. Unlike its(More)
The neurons in the external segment of the pallidum (GPe) in awake animals maintain a high level of firing activity. The level and pattern of the activity change with the development of basal ganglia disorders including parkinsonism and hemiballism. The GPe projects to most of the nuclei in the basal ganglia. Thus exploring the mechanisms controlling the(More)
The presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) is a cortical motor-related area which lies in the medial wall of the frontal lobe, immediately anterior to the supplementary motor area (SMA). This area has been considered to participate in the control of complex forelimb movements in a way different from the SMA. In an attempt to analyze the patterns of(More)
Parkinson's disease is characterized by degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons, leading to a wide variety of psychomotor dysfunctions. Accumulated evidence suggests that abnormally synchronized oscillations in the basal ganglia contribute to the expression of Parkinsonian motor symptoms. However, the mechanism that generates abnormal oscillations in a(More)
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a key structure for somatic motor control via the basal ganglia. In the present study, we demonstrate that the STN of the macaque monkey has dual sets of body part representations. Each of the two separate portions of the STN is characterized with somatotopically arranged direct cortical inputs that are derived from the(More)
It is postulated that synchronous firing of cortical neurons plays an active role in cognitive functions of the brain. An important issue is whether pyramidal neurons in different cortical layers exhibit similar tendencies to synchronise. To address this issue, we performed intracellular and whole-cell recordings of regular-spiking pyramidal neurons in(More)