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The intracellular protein tyrosine kinase FAK (focal adhesion kinase) was originally identified gy its high level of tyrosine phosphorylation in v-src-transformed cells. FAK is also highly phosphorylated during early development. In cultured cells it is localized to focal adhesion contacts and becomes phosphorylated and activated in response to(More)
This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and(More)
Central auditory relay synapses in mature animals follow high-frequency inputs for computation of sound localization. In immature mice, however, transmission at the calyx of Held synapse in auditory brainstem was inaccurate for high-frequency inputs because the summed slow synaptic potential components caused aberrant firings or blocked action potentials.(More)
The adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC) is mutated in familial adenomatous polyposis and in sporadic colorectal tumors, and its product binds to the adherens junction protein beta-catenin. Overexpression of APC blocks cell cycle progression. The APC-beta-catenin complex was shown to bind to DLG, the human homolog of the Drosophila discs large tumor(More)
Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) synthesizes histamine from histidine in mammals. To evaluate the role of histamine, we generated HDC-deficient mice using a gene targeting method. The mice showed a histamine deficiency and lacked histamine-synthesizing activity from histidine. These HDC-deficient mice are viable and fertile but exhibit a decrease in the(More)
Stimulation of two metabotropic glutamate-receptor subtypes, mGluR1 and mGluR5, triggers the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores through the inositol-(1,4,5) trisphosphate (InsP3) pathway. Here we report that glutamate induces single-peaked intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in mGluR1alpha-transfected cells but elicits Ca2+ oscillations in(More)
To identify the major risk factors for the increased incidence of congenital malformations in offspring of mothers being treated for epilepsy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during pregnancy and, to determine the relative teratogenic risk of AEDs, we prospectively analyzed 983 offspring born in Japan, Italy, and Canada. The incidence of congenital(More)
We report here the clinical features and outcomes of 10 patients, aged 11 to 21 years (median, 13.0), with idiopathic tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) and uveitis syndrome (TINU syndrome). The initial symptoms were visual impairment in 7 patients and prolonged fever, anemia, or asthenia in 4 patients. An increase in urinary beta(2)-microglobulin was(More)
Gangliosides, sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, are abundant in the vertebrate (mammalian) nervous system. Their composition is spatially and developmentally regulated, and gangliosides have been widely believed to lay essential roles in establishment of the nervous system, especially in neuritogenesis and synaptogenesis. However, this has never(More)
The functions of src family protein-tyrosine kinases are thought to be regulated negatively by the phosphorylation of highly conserved tyrosine residues close to their carboxyl termini. Recently we have purified and cloned a protein-tyrosine kinase (designated as CSK) that can specifically phosphorylate the negative regulatory site of p60c-src. To elucidate(More)