Masahiko Ishida

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Tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ) is a cytokine produced by monocytes, macrophages, and T cells and is induced by pathogens, endotoxins, or related substances. TNF- α may play a key role in bone metabolism and is important in inflammatory bone diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Cells directly involved in osteoclastogenesis include macrophages, which(More)
Mechanical force loading exerts important effects on the skeleton by controlling bone mass and strength. Several in vivo experimental models evaluating the effects of mechanical loading on bone metabolism have been reported. Orthodontic tooth movement is a useful model for understanding the mechanism of bone remodeling induced by mechanical loading. In a(More)
OBJECTIVES Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a recognized immunomodulatory cytokine that regulates bone homeostasis. However, the influence of IL-4 on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and subsequent root resorption is still unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of IL-4 on tooth movement and its associated root resorption in a(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) is widely distributed throughout the nervous system. PACAP not only acts as a neurotransmitter but also elicits a broad spectrum of biological action via the PACAP-specific receptor, PAC1. However, no studies have investigated PACAP and PAC1 in the periodontal ligament (PDL), so we aimed to perform this(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is bacterial cell wall component capable of inducing osteoclast formation and pathological bone resorption. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP), the minimal essential structural unit responsible for the immunological activity of peptidoglycans, is ubiquitously expressed by bacterium. In this study, we investigated the effect of MDP in(More)
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