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The aim of this article is to propose new criteria for the diagnosis and severity assessment of acute cholecystitis, based on a systematic review of the literature and a consensus of experts. A working group reviewed articles with regard to the diagnosis and treatment of acute cholecystitis and extracted the best current available evidence. In addition to(More)
Familial adenomatous polyposis coli (FAP) is a disease characterized by the development of multiple colorectal adenomas, and affected individuals carry germline mutations in the APC gene. With the use of a conditional gene targeting system, a mouse model of FAP was created that circumvents the embryonic lethality of Apc deficiency and directs Apc(More)
BACKGROUND Japanese (JPN) guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis were published in 2006. The severity assessment criteria for acute pancreatitis were later revised by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) in 2008, leading to their publication as the JPN Guidelines 2010. Following the 2012 revision of the Atlanta(More)
Acute pancreatitis is a common disease with an annual incidence of between 5 and 80 people per 100,000 of the population. The two major etiological factors responsible for acute pancreatitis are alcohol and cholelithiasis (gallstones). The proportion of patients with pancreatitis caused by alcohol or gallstones varies markedly in different countries and(More)
Recent regulatory changes have placed a major emphasis on in vitro safety testing and alternative models. In regard to skin sensitization tests, dendritic cells (DCs) derived from human peripheral blood have been considered in the development of new in vitro alternatives. Human cell lines have been also reported recently. In our previous study, we suggested(More)
Processing of the boundary region between the putative structural and nonstructural regions of the hepatitis C virus precursor polyprotein was analyzed by in vitro translation using reticulocyte lysate in the presence of canine microsomal membranes. At this boundary in the precursor polyprotein, the most carboxy-terminal of the structural proteins, gp70(More)
Cholecystectomy has been widely performed in the treatment of acute cholecystitis, and laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been increasingly adopted as the method of surgery over the past 15 years. Despite the success of laparoscopic cholecystectomy as an elective treatment for symptomatic gallstones, acute cholecystitis was initially considered a(More)
Nonstructural 5A protein (NS5A) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is localized in the cytoplasm although it has a functional nuclear localization signal. To clarify the determinant of NS5A cytoplasmic localization, various N- or C-terminal deleted NS5A mutants were generated and their subcellular localization was analyzed in cell lines after transient expression.(More)
The seed oil of Jatropha curcas L. was shown to contain skin tumor promoters in a two-stage mouse carcinogenesis experiment. By using the irritant test on mouse ear to monitor activity, the "irritant fraction" was partially purified from the methanol extract of the seed oil by column chromatographies on Florisil and Sephadex LH-20. The irritant fraction(More)
A new type of phorbol ester, which has a macrocyclic dicarboxylic acid diester structure, was isolated from the seed oil of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae). Based on the results of spectroscopic analyses of the compound and its chemical degradation products, its structure is proposed to be an intramolecular 13,16-diester of 12-deoxy-16-hydroxyphorbol,(More)