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Diabetes, a disease in which carbohydrate and lipid metabolism are regulated improperly by insulin, is a serious worldwide health issue. Insulin is secreted from pancreatic beta cells in response to elevated plasma glucose, with various factors modifying its secretion. Free fatty acids (FFAs) provide an important energy source as nutrients, and they also(More)
So far some nuclear receptors for bile acids have been identified. However, no cell surface receptor for bile acids has yet been reported. We found that a novel G protein-coupled receptor, TGR5, is responsive to bile acids as a cell-surface receptor. Bile acids specifically induced receptor internalization, the activation of extracellular signal-regulated(More)
The structurally related orphan G-protein-coupled receptors GPR7 and GPR8 are expressed in the central nervous system, and their ligands have not been identified. Here, we report the identification of the endogenous ligand for both of these receptors. We purified the peptide ligand from porcine hypothalamus using stable Chinese hamster ovary cell lines(More)
We searched for peptidic ligands for orphan G protein-coupled receptors utilizing a human genome data base and identified a new gene encoding a preproprotein that could generate a peptide. This peptide consisted of 43 amino acid residues starting from N-terminal pyroglutamic acid and ending at C-terminal arginine-phenylalanine-amide. We therefore named it(More)
Urotensin II (UII) has been reported as the most potent known vasoconstrictor. While rat and mouse orthologs of UII precursor protein have been reported, only the tentative structures of UII peptides of these animals have been demonstrated, since prepro-UII proteins lack typical processing sites for their mature peptides. In the present study, we isolated a(More)
Relaxin 3 has been reported recently as a member of the insulin/IGF/relaxin family. To clarify the function of relaxin 3, we prepared recombinant human relaxin 3 using a mouse adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-secreting cell line, AtT20. To detect a mature form of recombinant human relaxin 3, a competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was developed using a(More)
Metastin is a novel peptide that was recently isolated from human placenta as the endogenous ligand of an orphan heptahelical receptor, hOT7T175. Metastin has been shown to suppress the motility of hOT7T175-transfected melanoma cells; however, studies of the physiological function of metastin have begun only recently. To investigate the possibility that(More)
Mucus overproduction is a clinical feature of asthma. Ca2+-activated Cl- channel 1 (CaCC1) has been identified as a protein that is expressed in intestinal epithelia and that plays an important role in fluid and electrolyte transport. Recently, its mouse counterpart, gob-5, was identified as a key molecule in the induction of murine asthma through mucus(More)
We have previously disclosed the first potent and orally effective non-peptide antagonist for the human luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor, a thieno[2,3-b]pyridin-4-one derivative, T-98475 (1). Extensive research on developing non-peptide LHRH antagonists has been carried out by employing a strategy of replacing the thienopyridin-4-one(More)
We identified urotensin II (U-II) as the endogenous ligand for the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR14 or SENR. Both U-II and GPR14 are expressed not only in peripheral tissues but also in the brain of rodents, suggesting that U-II plays a physiological role in the central nervous system. In the present study, we investigated the central effects of U-II(More)