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The ventral striatum is considered an interface between limbic and motor systems. We followed the orbital and medial prefrontal circuit through the monkey basal ganglia by analyzing the projection from this cortical area to the ventral striatum and the representation of orbitofrontal cortex via the striatum, in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra.(More)
Vascular calcification is associated with cardiovascular disease, the most common cause of death in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patients with CKD are treated with vitamin D receptor activators (VDRAs); therefore, we determined if this treatment affects vascular calcification. Uremic rats were given vehicle, calcitriol, paricalcitol, or doxercalciferol(More)
The most important etiological factors of resistance to medical treatments for secondary hyperparathyroidism are the decreased contents of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and Ca-sensing receptor (CaSR) in parathyroid cells and a severely swollen parathyroid gland (PTG) as a result of hyperplasia. The effects of direct maxacalcitol (OCT) injection into PTG in(More)
S-8921 (methyl 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(3-ethylvaleryl)-4-hydroxy-6,7,8-trimeth oxy-2- naphthoate, CAS 151165-96-7) is a novel hypocholesterolemic agent which was found to inhibit ileal Na+/bile acid cotransporter. In this report, the pharmacokinetic profile of S-8921 was studied in rats and dogs. After dosing of 14C-S-8921 to rats at 1 to 25 mg/kg as(More)
Hyperphosphatemia, vitamin D deficiency, and resulted hypocalcemia have been regarded as classical pathogeneses of secondary hyperparathyroidism. These factors have been treated by the administration of phosphorus binder and vitamin D derivatives. However, these therapies have not brought about a successful result for the prevention and treatment of(More)
Cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Vascular calcification is a common complication in CKD, and investigators have demonstrated that the extent and histoanatomic type of vascular calcification are predictors of subsequent vascular mortality. Although research efforts in the past decade(More)
Monotherapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors has been shown to be beneficial in suppressing the progression of experimentally induced kidney diseases. Whether such therapy provides additional benefits when combined with vitamin D or an analog of vitamin D has not been established. Rats were made uremic by 5/6 nephrectomy and treated as follows:(More)
AIMS This study investigated the protective effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril, and the vitamin D analog, paricalcitol, alone or in combination, on cardiac oxidative stress in uremic rats. METHODS Rats were made uremic by 5/6 nephrectomy and treated for 4 months as follows: (1) uremic + vehicle (n = 11); (2) uremic +(More)
Calcimimetic compounds inhibit not only parathyroid hormone (PTH) synthesis and secretion, but also parathyroid cell proliferation. The aim of this investigation is to examine the effect of the calcimimetic compound NPS R-568 (R-568) on parathyroid cell death in uremic rats. Hyperplastic parathyroid glands were obtained from uremic rats (subtotal(More)
BACKGROUND Vascular calcification is a highly regulated process. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) has been shown to accelerate the highly regulated osteogenic process in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Vitamin D receptor activators (VDRAs) have been associated with beneficial cardiovascular outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease. We examined(More)