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The ventral striatum is considered an interface between limbic and motor systems. We followed the orbital and medial prefrontal circuit through the monkey basal ganglia by analyzing the projection from this cortical area to the ventral striatum and the representation of orbitofrontal cortex via the striatum, in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra.(More)
Neuroendocrine abnormality of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis was investigated in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated dogs as a model of Parkinson's disease. Blood samples were collected every 4 h for 3-4 days before MPTP treatment, around 2 and 4 weeks after the treatment of MPTP (2.5 mg/kg). Adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) and(More)
The regional distribution of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was examined in the tissue and extracellular compartment of rat brain. The tissue content of IGF-I was the highest in the pituitary gland, followed by the olfactory bulb, upper brainstem, cerebellum, striatum, hippocampus, lower brainstem, and cerebral cortex. The extracellular concentration(More)
Cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Traditional causes such as diabetes, smoking, aging and hypertension do not fully explain the high rate of morbidity from cardiovascular disease seen in these patients. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) regulates extracellular volume(More)
The reduced expression level of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is attributed to the hyposensitivity of parathyroid cells to extracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+]o, which plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in patients and rats with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). Calcimimetic compounds have been(More)
In vivo microdialysis was used to determine SRIF release from the hypothalamus in unanesthetized male rats over a period of 24 h and in rats deprived of food for 72 h, in relation to changes in plasma GH levels. Before the experiment, a microdialysis probe was inserted into the anterior pituitary gland of the rats with an indwelling right atrial cannula.(More)
Oral phosphate loading and calcitriol stimulate Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) secretion, but the mechanisms underlying the stimulation of FGF23 remain to be studied. We compared the effect of intravenous phosphate loading with that of oral loading on FGF23 levels in normal and 5/6 nephrectomized uremic rats. Uremic rats (Nx) and sham-operated rats(More)
This study investigates the time-dependent effects of cinacalcet on serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in 5/6 nephrectomized (NX) rats with experimental chronic renal insufficiency. In this study, 5/6 NX male, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with vehicle or cinacalcet (10 mg/kg, oral, 1× daily). On Day 0 (before treatment), Day(More)
Recently published 'Guidelines for the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic dialysis patients' by the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy advocate that percutaneous ethanol injection into enlarged glands, which has been considered as the only alternative to parathyroidectomy (PTx), should be indicated in patients with a single enlarged(More)
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) modulators (VDRMs) are commonly used to control secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) associated with chronic kidney disease, and are associated with beneficial outcomes in cardiovascular disease. In this study, we compared the cardiac effect of VS-105, a novel VDRM, with that of paricalcitol in 5/6 nephrectomized uremic rats. Male(More)