The 2-twist spun trefoil is an example of a sphere that is knotted in 4-dimensional space. Here this example is shown to be distinct from the same sphere with the reversed orientation. To demonstrate this fact a state-sum invariant for classical knots and knotted surfaces is developed via a cohomology theory of racks and quandles (also known as distributive… (More)
State-sum invariants for knotted curves and surfaces using quandle cohomology were introduced by Laurel Langford and the authors in 4]. In this paper we present methods to compute the invariants and sample computations. Computer calculations of cohomological dimensions for some quandles are presented. For classical knots, Burau representations together with… (More)
Geometric representations of cycles in quandle homology theory are given in terms of colored knot diagrams. Abstract knot diagrams are generalized to diagrams with exceptional points which, when colored, correspond to degenerate cycles. Bounding chains are realized, and used to obtain equivalence moves for homologous cycles. The methods are applied to prove… (More)
We study the number of Reidemeister type III moves using Fox n-colorings of knot diagrams.
We prove that a crossing change along a double point circle on a 2-knot is realized by ribbon-moves for a knotted torus obtained from the 2-knot by attaching a 1-handle. It follows that any 2-knots for which the crossing change is an unknotting operation, such as ribbon 2-knots and twist-spun knots, have trivial Khovanov-Jacobsson number.
The groups of link bordism can be identified with homotopy groups via the Pontryagin–Thom construction. B.J. Sanderson computed the bordism group of 3 component surface–links using the Hilton–Milnor Theorem, and later gave a geometric interpretation of the groups in terms of intersections of Seifert hypersurfaces and their framings. In this paper, we… (More)
We show that 3-dimensional graph structures can be used for solving computational problems with DNA molecules. Vertex building blocks consisting of k-armed (k = 3 or 4) branched junction molecules are used to form graphs. We present procedures for the 3-SAT and 3-vertex-colorability problems. Construction of one graph structure (in many copies) is… (More)
Crane and Frenkel proposed a state sum invariant for triangulated 4-manifolds. They defined and used new algebraic structures called Hopf categories for their construction. Crane and Yetter studied Hopf categories and gave some examples using group cocycles that are associated to the Drinfeld double of a finite group. In this paper we define a state sum… (More)
We introduce an equivalence relation, called stable equivalence, on knot diagrams and closed curves on surfaces. We give bijections between the set of abstract knots, the set of virtual knots, and the set of the stable equivalence classes of knot diagrams on surfaces. Using these bijections, we define concordance and link homology for virtual links. As an… (More)