Masaharu Kawabata

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Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK) 1 was recently identified as a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase kinase which activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAP kinase pathways and is required for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced apoptosis; however, the mechanism regulating ASK1 activity is unknown. Through genetic(More)
SMAD proteins have been identified as signalling mediators of the TGF-beta superfamily, which is involved in a range of biological activities including cell growth, morphogenesis, development and immune responses. Smad1, Smad2, Smad3 and Smad5 are ligand-specific: Smadl and Smad5 transduce signals from bone morphogenetic proteins, and Smad2 and Smad3(More)
TGF-beta signals from the membrane to the nucleus through serine/threonine kinase receptors and their downstream effectors, termed SMAD proteins. The activated TGF-beta receptor induces phosphorylation of two such proteins, Smad2 and Smad3, which form hetero-oligomeric complex(es) with Smad4/DPC4 that translocate to the nucleus, where they then regulate(More)
The cytokines LIF (leukemia inhibitory factor) and BMP2 (bone morphogenetic protein-2) signal through different receptors and transcription factors, namely STATs (signal transducers and activators of transcription) and Smads. LIF and BMP2 were found to act in synergy on primary fetal neural progenitor cells to induce astrocytes. The transcriptional(More)
The left-right (L-R) asymmetric expression of lefty2 and nodal is controlled by a left side-specific enhancer (ASE). The transcription factor FAST2, which can mediate signaling by TGF beta and activin, has now been identified as a protein that binds to a conserved sequence in ASE. These FAST2 binding sites were both essential and sufficient for L-R(More)
Transcatheter hepatic artery embolization was performed in 120 patients with unresectable hepatoma. The cumulative one-year survival rate was 44%. In most cases follow-up angiography revealed the selective disappearance of tumor vessels, and computed tomography demonstrated a marked decrease in tumor density without any changes in the surrounding liver(More)
Smad family members are newly identified essential intracellular signalling components of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily. Smad2 and Smad3 are structurally highly similar and mediate TGF-beta signals. Smad4 is distantly related to Smads 2 and 3, and forms a heteromeric complex with Smad2 after TGF-beta or activin stimulation. Here(More)
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional cytokines, which are members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily. Activities of BMPs are extracellularly regulated by BMP-binding proteins, Noggin and Chordin. BMPs bind to two different types of serine-threonine kinase receptors, type I and type II. Two BMP type I receptors(More)
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, play a variety of roles during mouse development. BMP type II receptor (BMPR-II) is a type II serine/threonine kinase receptor, which transduces signals for BMPs through heteromeric complexes with type I receptors, including activin receptor-like kinase 2 (ALK2),(More)
We studied the clinical features and laboratory findings in 213 patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis as diagnosed in Kagoshima University Hospital. Some aspects of clinical features in HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis were characterized by mode of HTLV-I transmission and age of onset. The patients(More)