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Excessive nitric oxide (NO) production in cytokine-activated beta cells has been implicated in beta cell disruption in type 1 diabetes. beta cells are very vulnerable to NO-induced apoptosis. However, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is unclear. Low concentrations of NO that lead to apoptosis apparently do not cause severe DNA damage in mouse MIN6(More)
Arginase exists in two isoforms. Liver-type arginase (arginase I) is expressed almost exclusively in the liver and catalyzes the last step of urea synthesis, whereas the nonhepatic type (arginase II) is expressed in extrahepatic tissues. Arginase II has been proposed to play a role in down-regulation of nitric oxide synthesis. A cDNA for human arginase II(More)
The protective association between the human leukocyte antigen HLA-B53 and severe malaria was investigated by sequencing of peptides eluted from this molecule followed by screening of candidate epitopes from pre-erythrocytic-stage antigens of Plasmodium falciparum in biochemical and cellular assays. Among malaria-immune Africans, HLA-B53-restricted(More)
CD4(+) T cells have T(h) cell function and include two major functional subsets, T(h)1 and T(h)2. However, there are a restricted number of studies concerning phenotypic classification of human CD4(+) T cells. Here by using seven- and eight-color flow cytometric analysis, we investigated the function of the subsets classified by four markers, CD27, CD28,(More)
In an attempt to elucidate the mechanism governing liver-specific transcription of the arginase gene, we previously detected two protein-binding sites designated footprint areas A and B at positions around--90 and --55 bp, respectively, relative to the transcription start site of the rat arginase gene. Based on the finding that area A was bound by a(More)
The rapid and extensive spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic provides a rare opportunity to witness host-pathogen co-evolution involving humans. A focal point is the interaction between genes encoding human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and those encoding HIV proteins. HLA molecules present fragments (epitopes) of HIV proteins on the surface(More)
Arginine is a precursor for the synthesis of urea, polyamines, creatine phosphate, nitric oxide and proteins. It is synthesized from ornithine by argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase and is degraded by arginase, which consists of a liver-type (arginase I) and a non-hepatic type (arginase II). Recently, cDNAs for human and rat arginase II(More)
Nitric oxide is synthesized by nitric-oxide synthase from arginine, a common substrate of arginase. Rat peritoneal macrophages were cultured in the presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and expression of the inducible isoform of nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and liver-type arginase (arginase I) was analyzed. mRNAs for iNOS and arginase I were(More)
HIV-1-specific CTL has a crucial role in the elimination of the virus. However, a restricted number of common HLA class I alleles has been studied for their presentation of HIV-1 CTL epitopes. We have attempted to identify HIV-1 CTL epitopes presented by HLA-A*2402 using reverse immunogenetics. Fifty-three HLA-A*2402-binding HIV-1 peptides were used to(More)
Multicolor flow cytometric analysis for the expression of three effector molecules, i.e., perforin (Per), granzyme A (GraA), and granzyme B (GraB), in human CD8(+) T cells demonstrated that they included five subpopulations, implying the following pathway for the differentiation of CD8(+) T cells:(More)