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Multicolor flow cytometric analysis for the expression of three effector molecules, i.e., perforin (Per), granzyme A (GraA), and granzyme B (GraB), in human CD8(+) T cells demonstrated that they included five subpopulations, implying the following pathway for the differentiation of CD8(+) T cells:(More)
The protective association between the human leukocyte antigen HLA-B53 and severe malaria was investigated by sequencing of peptides eluted from this molecule followed by screening of candidate epitopes from pre-erythrocytic-stage antigens of Plasmodium falciparum in biochemical and cellular assays. Among malaria-immune Africans, HLA-B53-restricted(More)
Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) have several advantages as gene therapy vectors, including stable episomal maintenance, and the ability to carry large gene inserts. We previously developed HAC vectors from the normal human chromosomes using a chromosome engineering technique. However, endogenous genes were remained in these HACs, limiting their(More)
Polymorphism in the HLA region of a chromosome is the major source of host genetic variability in HIV-1 outcome, but there is limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of protective class I alleles such as HLA-B57, -B27, and -B51. Taking advantage of a unique cohort infected with clade B' HIV-1 through contaminated blood, in(More)
The rapid and extensive spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic provides a rare opportunity to witness host-pathogen co-evolution involving humans. A focal point is the interaction between genes encoding human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and those encoding HIV proteins. HLA molecules present fragments (epitopes) of HIV proteins on the surface(More)
Human T cell leukemia virus type-I (HTLV-I) is the etiologic agent of adult T cell leukemia and has also been suggested to be involved in other diseases such as chronic arthritis or myelopathy. To elucidate pathological roles of the virus in disease, transgenic mice were produced that carry the HTLV-I genome. At 2 to 3 months of age, many of the mice(More)
Hyperammonemia in the brain leads to poorly understood alterations of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Arginine, the substrate of nitric oxide synthases, might be recycled from the citrulline produced with NO by argininosuccinate synthetase (AS) and argininosuccinate lyase (AL). The regulation of AS and AL genes during hyperammonemia is unknown in the brain. We(More)
Regional distribution of neurons expressing neuronal nitric oxide synthase mRNA in the rat brain was examined by non-radioisotopic in situ hybridization, using digoxigenin-labeled complementary RNA probes. Clustering of intensely positive neurons was observed in discrete areas including the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, the islands of Calleja, the(More)
Previous studies of perforin expression and cytokine production in subsets of peripheral human CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells with different CD28/CD27 phenotypes showed that CD28(+)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) and CD27(+)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells have characteristics of memory T cells, whereas CD28(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) and CD27(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells have characteristics of both(More)
Mapping the precise determinants of T-cell efficacy against viruses in humans is a public health priority with crucial implications for vaccine design. To inform this effort, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the effective CD8(+) T-cell clonotypes that constitute responses specific for the HIV p24 Gag-derived KK10 epitope (KRWIILGLNK; residues(More)