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Exposure to an enriched environment has been shown to have many positive effects on brain structure and function. In the present study, we examined the effects of environmental enrichment on monoaminergic neurons in the mouse brain. After being exposed to an enriched environment for 40 days, noradrenaline content was increased significantly in the(More)
We have previously reported that the transplantation of dendritic cells (DCs) brings about functional recovery after spinal cord injury in mice through the activation of endogenous microglia/macrophages and neural stem/progenitor cells. In this study, the effect of interleukin-12 (IL-12), which is secreted from DCs, was evaluated for the treatment of spinal(More)
The optogenetic approach to primate brain circuitry has unparalleled potential for uncovering genetically and temporally resolved neuronal mechanisms of higher brain functions. In order to optogenetically investigate the large and complex primate brain, an optical-/electrical probe, or "optrode", must be inserted deeply, which requires the optrode to be not(More)
Lentiviral vectors deliver transgenes efficiently to a wide range of neuronal cell types in the mammalian central nervous system. To drive gene expression, internal promoters are essential; however, the in vivo properties of promoters, such as their cell type specificity and gene expression activity, are not well known, especially in the nonhuman primate(More)
We previously reported that implantation of dendritic cells (DCs) into the injured site activates neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) and promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in mice. Working toward clinical application of DC therapy for SCI, we analyzed whether DCs promote functional recovery after SCI in a non-human primate, the(More)
To establish a simple and reliable test for assessing locomotor function in mice with brain injury, we developed a new method, the rotarod slip test, in which the number of slips of the paralytic hind limb from a rotarod is counted. Brain injuries of different severity were created in adult C57BL/6 mice, by inflicting 1-point, 2-point and 4-point(More)
Pathway-specific gene delivery is requisite for understanding complex neuronal systems in which neurons that project to different target regions are locally intermingled. However, conventional genetic tools cannot achieve simultaneous, independent gene delivery into multiple target cells with high efficiency and low cross-reactivity. In this study, we(More)
During sensory deprivation, the barrel cortex undergoes expansion of a functional column representing spared inputs (spared column), into the neighboring deprived columns (representing deprived inputs) which are in turn shrunk. As a result, the neurons in a deprived column simultaneously increase and decrease their responses to spared and deprived inputs,(More)
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