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The movements of E-cadherin, epidermal growth factor receptor, and transferrin receptor in the plasma membrane of a cultured mouse keratinocyte cell line were studied using both single particle tracking (SPT; nanovid microscopy) and fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR). In the SPT technique, the receptor molecules are labeled with 40 nm-phi colloidal(More)
Transcription factor Nrf2 is essential for the antioxidant responsive element (ARE)-mediated induction of phase II detoxifying and oxidative stress enzyme genes. Detailed analysis of differential Nrf2 activity displayed in transfected cell lines ultimately led to the identification of a new protein, which we named Keap1, that suppresses Nrf2 transcriptional(More)
The induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes is an important defense mechanism against intake of xenobiotics. While this group of enzymes is believed to be under the transcriptional control of antioxidant response elements (AREs), this contention is experimentally unconfirmed. Since the ARE resembles the binding sequence of erythroid transcription factor(More)
The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are key receptors in the modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Here we have determined three different crystal structures of the extracellular ligand-binding region of mGluR1--in a complex with glutamate and in two unliganded forms. They all showed disulphide-linked(More)
Common wheat, Triticum aestivum, is an allohexaploid species consisting of three different genomes (A, B, and D). The three genomes were simultaneously discriminated with different colors. Biotinylated total genomic DNA of the diploid A genome progenitor Triticum urartu, digoxigenin-labeled total genomic DNA of the diploid D genome progenitor Aegilops(More)
As a first step towards development of insect resistant rice we have introduced a truncated delta-endotoxin gene, cryIA(b) of Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) which has specific biological activity against lepidopteran insects into a japonica rice. To highly express the cryIA(b) gene in rice the coding sequence was extensively modified based on the codon usage(More)
Schizosaccharomyces pombe ste11 encodes a member of the family of HMG-box proteins. Its transcript is induced in response to nitrogen starvation and a concomitant decrease of the intracellular cAMP level. Expression of ste11 is essential for induction of sexual development, and its ectopic expression stimulates uncontrolled mating and sporulation. Ste11(More)
The identification of surface proteins restricted to subsets of embryonic axons and growth cones may provide information on the mechanisms underlying axon fasciculation and pathway selection in the vertebrate nervous system. We describe here the characterization of a 135 kd cell surface glycoprotein, TAG-1, that is expressed transiently on subsets of(More)
Electrophiles and reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Transcription factor Nrf2 was recently identified as a general regulator of one defense mechanism against such havoc. Nrf2 regulates the inducible expression of a group of detoxication enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase and NAD(P)H:quinone(More)
The Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata causes black spot of Japanese pear by producing a host-specific toxin known as AK-toxin. Restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) mutagenesis was used to tag genes required for toxin biosynthesis. Protoplasts of a wild-type strain were treated with a linearized plasmid along with the restriction(More)