Masaaki Morisawa

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Spermatozoa that are quiescent in electrolyte and nonelectrolyte solutions isotonic to seminal plasma show motility when the semen is diluted with hypotonic solution in freshwater teleosts (four species tested) and with hypertonic solution in marine teleosts (five species tested). Decrease or increase, respectively, in osmolality of the environment may be(More)
Spermatozoa of rainbow trout and chum salmon, which have no potential for motility in the testis, acquire that potential in the sperm duct. This paper demonstrates that there is little difference between the levels of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride and osmolality of the seminal plasma in the testis and in the sperm duct. However, the(More)
Changes in [Ca2+]i are an essential factor regulating egg activation. Matured ascidian eggs are arrested at metaphase I, and two series of [Ca2+]i transients have been observed after fertilization: Ca2+ waves just after fertilization (Series I) and [Ca2+]i oscillation between the first and second polar body extrusion (Series II). We investigated mechanisms(More)
Change of osmolality surrounding spawned sperm from isotonic to hypotonic causes the initiation of sperm motility in the common carp. Here we show that membrane-permeable cAMP does not initiate motility of carp sperm that is quiescent in isotonic solution, and that motility of the demembranated sperm can be reactivated without cAMP. Furthermore, the cAMP(More)
Ascidian sperm were activated and attracted to all of the surface of a whole egg. When the whole egg was separated into follicle cells, chorion and test cells, and the egg itself (naked egg), spermatozoa were activated and exhibited chemotaxis toward the vegetal pole of the naked egg. Such activation and chemotaxis were not observed around isolated follicle(More)
An oocyte of the marine bivalve Mytilus edulis, which is arrested at metaphase I, reinitiates meiosis at fertilization. The fertilized oocyte shows increases in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) comprising three different phases: an initial large [Ca2+]i transient, a subsequent low but sustained [Ca2+]i elevation, and repetitive small [Ca2+]i transients. In this(More)
Sperm chemotaxis toward eggs before fertilization has been demonstrated in many animals and plants, and several peptides and small organic compounds acting as chemoattractants have been identified. We previously showed that sperm of the ascidians Ciona intestinalis and Ciona savignyi are activated and then attracted toward the egg by a common factor(More)
Spermatozoa of freshwater Cyprinidae (goldfish, carp, crucian carp and dace) remained immotile when the semen was diluted in solutions of NaCl, KCl, mannitol or glucose iso-osmolar to the seminal plasma (300 mosmol kg-1). The spermatozoa became motile in media containing these solutes if the osmolality was lower than that of the seminal plasma, suggesting(More)
We have purified two chymotrypsin-like proteases from chum salmon sperm which have no apparent acrosome structure. Both of them were high molecular mass proteases (650 kDa and 950 kDa by gel filtration) and showed not only chymotrypsin-like activity but also trypsin-like activity. The 650 kDa protease was composed of at least eight or nine kinds of(More)
Proteasomes are involved in ATP-dependent regulation of sperm motility in salmonid fish. We have demonstrated here by immunoelectron microscopy that proteasomes are located at the structure of the chum salmon sperm flagellum that attaches at the base of the outer arm dynein and extends toward the plasma membrane. Furthermore, substrates and inhibitors of(More)