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Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)/PAS proteins, such as Sim, act as transcriptional factors, playing a critical role in the control of central nervous system (CNS) development. To isolate novel bHLH/PAS factors in the CNS an iterative search of a database for expressed sequence tags (ESTs) resulted in the location of several bHLH/PAS protein-like sequences. The(More)
Lipid absorption and metabolism are regulated by feeding and by the circadian system. It has been suggested that the expression of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism is directly controlled by the clock system. This study was designed to examine whether or not the CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer has transcriptional activity for genes via the peroxisome(More)
We isolated a human cDNA encoding a novel member of the bHLH-PAS transcription factor superfamily, BMAL2, which is highly similar to, but distinct from, BMAL1. The composite cDNA covered a 1720-bp sequence consisting of a putative 1653-bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 551 amino acids. The deduced BMAL2 product contains a bHLH-PAS domain in(More)
We tested whether the human Clock (hClock) gene, one of the essential components of the circadian oscillator, is implicated in the vulnerability to delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) and non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome (N-24). Screening in the entire coding region of the hClock gene with PCR amplification revealed three polymorphisms, of which two(More)
BACKGROUND Luciferase assay systems enable the real-time monitoring of gene expression in living cells. We have developed a dual-color luciferase assay system in which the expression of multiple genes can be tracked simultaneously using green- and red-emitting beetle luciferases. We have applied the system to monitoring independent gene expressions in two(More)
Transcriptional regulation appears to be fundamental to circadian oscillations of clock gene expression. These oscillations are believed to control output rhythms. The transcriptional feedback loop and a model of interlocked loops have been proposed as the basis for these oscillations. We characterized the genomic structure of the mouse Bmal1 gene (mBmal1)(More)
Circadian rhythms are generated by an extremely complicated transcription-translation feedback loop. To precisely analyze the molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock, it is critical to monitor multiple gene expressions and/or interactions with their transcription factors simultaneously. We have developed a novel reporter assay system, the tricolor(More)
The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) plays a pivotal role in the mammalian circadian clock system. Bmal1 is a clock gene that drives transcriptional-translational feedback loops (TTFLs) for itself and other genes, and is expressed in nearly all SCN neurons. Despite strong evidence that Bmal1-null mutant mice display arrhythmic behavior under(More)
Reporter assays that use luciferase are widely employed for monitoring cellular events associated with gene expression. In general, firefly luciferase and Renilla luciferase are used for monitoring single gene expression. However, the expression of more than one gene cannot be monitored simultaneously by this system because one of the two reporting(More)
Evaluation of circadian phenotypes is crucial for understanding the pathophysiology of diseases associated with disturbed biological rhythms such as circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs). We measured clock gene expression in fibroblasts from individual subjects and observed circadian rhythms in the cells (in vitro rhythms). Period length of the in vitro(More)