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The molecular mechanisms whereby CD28 alone or associated with TCR can regulate FOXP3 expression are not understood, although the importance of CD28 as a pivotal regulator of CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) T cells is well recognized. We previously demonstrated that unique CD28-induced, NF-κB-dependent signals were sufficient to activate FOXP3 transcription in(More)
The nerve growth factor (NGF) belongs to a family of neurotrophic factors called neurotrophins. It was discovered as a molecule that stimulates the survival and maturation of developing neurons in the peripheral nervous system and has later been shown to protect adult neurons in the degenerating mammalian brain. Basic and clinical studies have been(More)
During physiological T-cell stimulation by antigen presenting cells (APCs), a major T-cell membrane rearrangement is known to occur leading to the organization of 'supramolecular activation clusters' at the immunological synapse. A possible role for the synapse is the generation of membrane compartments where signalling may be organized and propagated.(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is essential for the survival and functional maintenance of forebrain cholinergic neurons projecting mainly to the cortex and hippocampus. NGF is produced in these brain areas but while mature NGF (mNGF) has a survival/differentiative effect its precursor proNGF elicits apoptosis in cholinergic neurons. Impaired neurotransmission,(More)
The Western explanation for acupuncture effectiveness is based upon more than half a century of basic and clinical research, which identified the activation of sensory system and the subsequent activity-dependent regulation of neurotransmitters, neurohormones, and several classes of neuromodulators as plausible mechanism for the acupuncture's therapeutic(More)
Among the signals necessary to generate CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) T cells from CD4(+)CD25(-)FOXP3(-) T cells, a pivotal role is played by CD28. However, in humans, it is not known whether CD28 signaling independently of TCR promotes forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) expression and regulates CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) T cell functions. To address this issue, starting(More)
Considerable evidence supports the prediction that CD25 is directly regulated by the forkhead transcription factor FOXP3. However, given that CD25 is normally upregulated in activated T cells, regardless of whether they express FOXP3, this issue has still to be definitively demonstrated. Here we describe that FOXP3, induced by CD28 signals in human(More)
Paediatric optic pathway gliomas are low-grade brain tumours characterized by slow progression and invalidating visual loss. Presently there is no strategy to prevent visual loss in this kind of tumour. This study evaluated the effects of nerve growth factor administration in protecting visual function in patients with optic pathway glioma-related visual(More)
The purpose of this work was to investigate whether, by intranasal administration, the nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and turns over the spinal cord neurons and if such therapeutic approach could be of value in the treatment of spinal cord injury. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats with intact and injured spinal cord received daily intranasal(More)
A single bout of low-frequency electroacupuncture (EA) causing muscle contractions increases whole-body glucose uptake in insulin-resistant rats. We explored the underlying mechanism of this finding and whether it can be translated into clinical settings. Changes in glucose infusion rate (GIR) were measured by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp during and(More)
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