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Mutant transcripts containing expanded CUG repeats in the untranslated region are a pathogenic factor in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). The mutant RNA sequesters the muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1) splicing factor and causes misregulation of the alternative splicing of multiple genes that are linked to clinical symptoms of the disease. In this study, we show(More)
The CAG repeat expansions that occur in translated regions of specific genes can cause human genetic disorders known as polyglutamine (poly-Q)-triggered diseases. Huntington's disease and spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) are examples of these diseases in which underlying mutations are localized near other trinucleotide repeats in the huntingtin (HTT) and(More)
Non-B DNA conformations adopted by certain types of DNA sequences promote genetic instabilities, especially gross rearrangements including translocations. We conclude the following: (a) slipped (hairpin) structures, cruciforms, triplexes, tetraplexes and i-motifs, and left-handed Z-DNA are formed in chromosomes and elicit profound genetic consequences via(More)
Discrete and punctate nuclear RNA foci are characteristic molecular hallmarks of pathogenesis in myotonic dystrophy type 1 and type 2. Intranuclear RNA inclusions of distinct morphology have also been found in fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome, Huntington's disease-like 2, spinocerebellar ataxias type 8, type 10 and type 31. These neurological(More)
This review presents detailed information about the structure of triplet repeat RNA and addresses the simple sequence repeats of normal and expanded lengths in the context of the physiological and pathogenic roles played in human cells. First, we discuss the occurrence and frequency of various trinucleotide repeats in transcripts and classify them according(More)
Over 20 genetic loci with abnormal expansions of short tandem repeats have been associated with human hereditary neurological diseases. Of these, specific trinucleotide repeats located in non-coding and coding regions of individual genes implicated in these disorders are strongly overrepresented. Expansions of CTG, CGG and CAG repeats are linked to,(More)
The capacity of (CTG.CAG)n and (GAA.TTC)n repeat tracts in plasmids to induce mutations in DNA flanking regions was evaluated in Escherichia coli. Long repeats of these sequences are involved in the etiology of myotonic dystrophy type 1 and Friedreich's ataxia, respectively. Long (CTG.CAG)n (where n = 98 and 175) caused the deletion of most, or all, of the(More)
Programmed cell death (PCD) is an active, genetically controlled process that ultimately leads to elimination of unnecessary or damaged cells from multicellular organism. It occurs during normal growth and development or in response to a variety of environmental triggers and is indispensable for survival of the organism. In Echinocystis lobata the(More)
Expandable (CTG)n repeats in the 3' UTR of the DMPK gene are a cause of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), which leads to a toxic RNA gain-of-function disease. Mutant RNAs with expanded CUG repeats are retained in the nucleus and aggregate in discrete inclusions. These foci sequester splicing factors of the MBNL family and trigger upregulation of the CUGBP(More)
Repeat-associated disorders caused by expansions of short sequences have been classified as coding and noncoding and are thought to be caused by protein gain-of-function and RNA gain-of-function mechanisms, respectively. The boundary between such classifications has recently been blurred by the discovery of repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation(More)