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Numerous studies have clearly demonstrated that skeletal characteristics vary by population. To date, there are no metric cranial criteria for South African whites. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to establish population specific standards for sex determination from the skull. A total of 12 standard cranial and five mandibular measurements were(More)
With the current high incidence of violent crimes in South Africa, it has become very important to be able to determine the sex of individuals from their skeletal remains. The aim of this study is to provide standards usable for this purpose, to be used on the contemporary South African white population. Very little skeletal data is available for this(More)
In forensic science, investigators frequently have to deal with unidentified skeletonised remains. When conventional methods of identification are unsuccessful, forensic facial reconstruction (FFR) may be used, often as a last resort, to assist the process. FFR relies on the relationships between the facial features, subcutaneous soft tissues and underlying(More)
Understanding sexual dimorphism is very important in studies of human evolution and skeletal biology. Sexual dimorphic characteristics can be studied morphologically and metrically, although morphologic studies pose several problems such as difficulties with quantification and interobserver error. Geometric morphometrics is a relatively new method that(More)
There has been a surge of research on forensic anthropology in South Africa. Differences between the populations of this country and others are demonstrated in many studies. Yet, many forensic osteometric techniques based on other populations are still in use. The purpose of the present study is to develop an osteometric sex determination technique using(More)
Personal identification of individuals is very important in forensic sciences. Facial identification is becoming even more relevant with increasing crime rates, problems with access control and terrorist attacks. To make facial identification more accurate, an in depth knowledge of the common and rare facial characteristics seen in various populations is(More)
A vital aspect of skeletal analysis is the determination of population affinity of an unknown individual. The aim of this paper is to develop discriminant function formulae to determine race from craniometric dimensions of South African blacks and whites. Skeletons used in this study came from the Universities of the Witwatersrand and Pretoria. The sample(More)
The successful identification of human skeletal remains relies on proven diagnostic techniques for sex determination. This research utilized 608 individuals from South Africa (420 men, 188 women) to conduct a blind nonmetric determination of sex from three features of the distal humerus: olecranon fossa shape, angle of the medial epicondyle, and trochlear(More)
The ability to determine sex from unknown skeletal remains is vital, and methods to do this on the various bones of the human skeleton have been researched extensively. Many researchers have emphasized the need for population specific data for methods which are based on measurements, as there are vast differences in body size in various populations. The(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the effect of adding clonidine to ropivacaine, for axillary brachial plexus blockade, on the onset and duration of sensory and motor block and duration of analgesia. METHODS In a prospective randomised double blind placebo controlled study axillary brachial plexus blockade was performed in 50 patients using 40 ml ropivacaine 0.75%.(More)