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Along with the shift of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus to higher altitudes observed in the Czech Republic a corresponding shift of tick-borne infections to higher altitudes has been expected. Therefore, I. ricinus ticks, mainly nymphs, were investigated for the presence of tick-borne viruses, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), Tribec and Eyach, and the(More)
Ixodes ricinus L. is the principal European vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis. Subtractive hybridization was used to isolate tick genes that were induced in whole ticks after blood meals on uninfected and B. burgdorferi-infected guinea pigs. Novel cDNA clones with similarity to cytochrome c oxidase, salivary(More)
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex is a diverse group of worldwide distributed bacteria that includes 18 named spirochete species and a still not named group proposed as genomospecies 2. Descriptions of new species and variants continue to be recognized, so the current number of described species is probably not final. Most of known spirochete(More)
An attenuated strain (263) of the tick-borne encephalitis virus, isolated from field ticks, was either serially subcultured, 5 times in mice, or at 40 degrees C in PS cells, producing 2 independent strains, 263-m5 and 263-TR with identical genomes; both strains exhibited increased plaque size, neuroinvasiveness and temperature-resistance. Sequencing(More)
Lyme disease is caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. They are transmitted mainly by Ixodes ricinus ticks. After a few hours of infestation, neutrophils massively infiltrate the bite site. They can kill Borrelia via phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and hydrolytic enzymes. However, factors in tick saliva promote propagation of(More)
A group of 16 isolates with genotypic characteristics different from those of known species of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex were cultured from ear biopsies of the rodents Peromyscus gossypinus and Neotoma floridana trapped at five localities in South Carolina, USA, and from the tick Ixodes minor feeding on N. floridana. Multilocus sequence(More)
Molecular analysis of a clinical sample confirmed the presence of Borrelia bissettii DNA in cardiac valve tissue from a patient with endocarditis and aortic valve stenosis. This evidence strongly supports the involvement of B. bissettii in Lyme disease in Europe.
Until recently, three spirochete genospecies were considered to be the causative agents of Lyme borreliosis (LB) in Europe: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii. However, the DNA of Borrelia valaisiana, Borrelia lusitaniae, Borrelia spielmanii and Borrelia bissettii has already been detected in samples of human origin,(More)
Approximately 118 Borrelia isolates were cultured from a variety of rodents, birds, and ticks collected in the southern United States. In addition to a highly diverse group of Borrelia bissettii strains and a homogenous group of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains, a group of 16 isolates with unusual characteristics was found. The isolates were(More)
The hard-bodied tick Ixodes ricinus (castor bean tick) is the most common tick species in Europe. I. ricinus is a vector of the causative agents of diseases that affect humans and animals including tick-borne encephalitis, borreliosis, tick-borne fever and babesiosis. The innate immune system provides ticks with quite an efficient defence against some(More)