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Two classes of glutathione transferases have been identified and purified from Musca domestica. The first, designated as GST1, migrates as a single band of 28 kDa in SDS-gel electrophoresis, and the second, designated as GST2, migrates as a 32-kDa band. Antisera prepared against each class have no immunological cross-reactivity, and heterodimeric(More)
Little is known of the fate of viruses involved in long-term obligatory associations with eukaryotes. For example, many species of parasitoid wasps have symbiotic viruses to manipulate host defenses and to allow development of parasitoid larvae. The complete nucleotide sequence of the DNA enclosed in the virus particles injected by a parasitoid wasp(More)
The relationship between parasitic wasps and bracoviruses constitutes one of the few known mutualisms between viruses and eukaryotes. The virions produced in the wasp ovaries are injected into host lepidopteran larvae, where virus genes are expressed, allowing successful development of the parasite by inducing host immune suppression and developmental(More)
In several Hymenoptera, sexual fate is determined by the allelic composition at the complementary sex-determiner locus, a sex-determination mechanism that can strongly affect population dynamics. To date, the molecular identification of complementary sex determiner has only been achieved in the honeybee, where the complementary sex-determiner gene was(More)
Two new highly active esterases were detected by starch electrophoretic studies inCulex pipiens mosquitoes from the area of Montpellier (France) and from Cyprus. We demonstrate here that both the French and the Cyprus esterases B are overproduced due to amplification of the coding gene. The production of the esterase B is approximately 50- and 500-fold(More)
This review summarizes and compares available data on genetic and molecular aspects of resistance in four well-described invertebrate host-parasite systems: snail-schistosome, mosquito-malaria, mosquito-filarial worm, and Drosophila-wasp associations. It underlies that the major components of the immune reaction, such as hemocyte proliferation and/or(More)
Polydnaviruses are unique viruses: they are essential for successful parasitism by tens of thousands of species of parasitoid wasps. These viruses are obligatorily associated with the wasps and are injected into the host during oviposition. Molecular analyses have shown that each virus sequence in the segmented polydnavirus genome is present in the wasp DNA(More)
In this chapter, we describe the geographically widespread genetic fixation of traits involved in Drosophila-parasitoid immune interactions and the situations where such fixation is not observed. We then discuss how the three classes of coevolutionary dynamics that can occur at the local scale (coevolutionary escalation, coevolutionary alternation and(More)
Endoparasitoid wasps develop at the expense of other insects, leading to their death. Eggs deposited inside the host body induce an immune response, which results in the formation of a melanized cellular capsule around the egg. To evade or counteract this response, endoparasitoids have evolved different strategies, the most often reported being injection(More)
Male first instar larvae possess more germ cells in their gonads than female larvae of the same stage. To determine the earliest time point of sexual dimorphism in germ cell number, we have counted the germ cells of sexed embryos at different developmental stages. We found no difference in germ cell number of male and female embryos at the blastoderm and(More)