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Little is known of the fate of viruses involved in long-term obligatory associations with eukaryotes. For example, many species of parasitoid wasps have symbiotic viruses to manipulate host defenses and to allow development of parasitoid larvae. The complete nucleotide sequence of the DNA enclosed in the virus particles injected by a parasitoid wasp(More)
Polydnaviruses, obligatorily associated with endoparasitoid wasps, are unique in that their segmented genome is composed of multiple double-stranded DNA circles. We present here the first cytological evidence that virus segments are integrated in the wasp genome, obtained by using in situ hybridization of virus probes with viral sequences in the chromosomes(More)
BACKGROUND Parasitic wasps constitute one of the largest group of venomous animals. Although some physiological effects of their venoms are well documented, relatively little is known at the molecular level on the protein composition of these secretions. To identify the majority of the venom proteins of the endoparasitoid wasp Chelonus inanitus(More)
Recent studies suggest that the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) has low immune defenses. However, its immune components are largely undescribed, and notably, extensive characterization of circulating cells has been missing. Here, we report characterization of five cell categories in hemolymph of adults of the LL01 pea aphid clone, devoid of secondary(More)
The relationship between parasitic wasps and bracoviruses constitutes one of the few known mutualisms between viruses and eukaryotes. The virions produced in the wasp ovaries are injected into host lepidopteran larvae, where virus genes are expressed, allowing successful development of the parasite by inducing host immune suppression and developmental(More)
In several Hymenoptera, sexual fate is determined by the allelic composition at the complementary sex-determiner locus, a sex-determination mechanism that can strongly affect population dynamics. To date, the molecular identification of complementary sex determiner has only been achieved in the honeybee, where the complementary sex-determiner gene was(More)
Inactivation of host Rho GTPases is a widespread strategy employed by bacterial pathogens to manipulate mammalian cellular functions and avoid immune defenses. Some bacterial toxins mimic eukaryotic Rho GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) to inactivate mammalian GTPases, probably as a result of evolutionary convergence. An intriguing question remains whether(More)
Occurrence of intraspecific variation in parasite virulence, a prerequisite for coevolution of hosts and parasites, has largely been reported. However, surprisingly little is known of the molecular bases of this variation in eukaryotic parasites, with the exception of the antigenic variation used by immune-evading parasites of mammals. The present work aims(More)
Relics of ancient infections are abundant in eukaryote genomes, but little is known about how they evolve when they confer a functional benefit on their host. We show here, for the first time, that the virus-like particles shown to protect Venturia canescens eggs against host immunity are derived from a nudivirus genome incorporated by the parasitic wasp(More)
Endoparasitoid wasps are important natural enemies of the widely distributed aphid pests and are mainly used as biological control agents. However, despite the increased interest on aphid interaction networks, only sparse information is available on the factors used by parasitoids to modulate the aphid physiology. Our aim was here to identify the major(More)