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Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system and are associated with the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative and brain inflammatory diseases; however, the origin of adult microglia remains controversial. We show that postnatal hematopoietic progenitors do not significantly contribute to microglia homeostasis in the adult brain. In(More)
CX(3)CR1(+) and CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in intestinal lamina propria play a key role in mucosal immunity. However, the origin and the developmental pathways that regulate their differentiation in the lamina propria remain unclear. We showed that monocytes gave rise exclusively to CD103(-)CX(3)CR1(+) lamina propria DCs under the control of(More)
Despite accumulating evidence suggesting local self-maintenance of tissue macrophages in the steady state, the dogma remains that tissue macrophages derive from monocytes. Using parabiosis and fate-mapping approaches, we confirmed that monocytes do not show significant contribution to tissue macrophages in the steady state. Similarly, we found that after(More)
Langerin is a C-type lectin receptor that recognizes glycosylated patterns on pathogens. Langerin is used to identify human and mouse epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), as well as migratory LCs in the dermis and the skin draining lymph nodes (DLNs). Using a mouse model that allows conditional ablation of langerin(+) cells in vivo, together with congenic bone(More)
Langerhans cells (LCs) are the dendritic cells (DCs) of the epidermis, forming one of the first hematopoietic lines of defense against skin pathogens. In contrast to other DCs, LCs arise from hematopoietic precursors that seed the skin before birth. However, the origin of these embryonic precursors remains unclear. Using in vivo lineage tracing, we identify(More)
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in specialized bone marrow (BM) niches regulated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Here, we have examined whether mononuclear phagocytes modulate the HSC niche. We defined three populations of BM mononuclear phagocytes that include Gr-1(hi) monocytes (MOs), Gr-1(lo) MOs, and macrophages (MΦ) based on(More)
Colony stimulating factor-1 (Csf-1) receptor and its ligand Csf-1 control macrophage development, maintenance, and function. The development of both Langerhans cells (LCs) and microglia is highly dependent on Csf-1 receptor signaling but independent of Csf-1. Here we show that in both mice and humans, interleukin-34 (IL-34), an alternative ligand for Csf-1(More)
A role for macrophages in erythropoiesis was suggested several decades ago when erythroblastic islands in the bone marrow, composed of a central macrophage surrounded by developing erythroblasts, were described. However, the in vivo role of macrophages in erythropoiesis under homeostatic conditions or in disease remains unclear. We found that specific(More)
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were shown to be present in systemic circulation and cord blood. We investigated whether EPCs display specific properties compared with mature endothelial cells. Human cord blood CD34+ cells were isolated and adherent cells were amplified under endothelial conditions. Expression of specific markers identified them as(More)
This work addresses the problem of efficient control of gene expression in the context of viral vectors, which still represents a difficult challenge. A number of lentiviral vectors incorporating the different elements of regulatable transcriptional systems have been described, but they fail to perform satisfactorily either because of a poor dynamic range(More)