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Natural killer (NK) cells play a central role in host defense against various pathogens. Functional defects of NK cells in HIV-1 infection as a direct effect of abnormal expression or function of inhibitory NK receptors (iNKRs), activating natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs), and NKG2D have not yet been described. This study demonstrates an expansion of(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease is associated with loss of CD4(+) T cells, chronic immune activation, and progressive immune dysfunction. HIV-specific responses, particularly those of CD4(+) T cells, become impaired early after infection, before the loss of responses directed against other antigens; the basis for this diminution has not been(More)
The persistence of latently infected, resting CD4+ T cells is considered to be a major obstacle in preventing the eradication of HIV-1 even in patients who have received effective antiviral therapy for an average duration of 5 years. Although previous studies have suggested that the latent HIV reservoir in the resting CD4+ T cell compartment is(More)
Certain HIV-encoded proteins modify host-cell gene expression in a manner that facilitates viral replication. These activities may contribute to low-level viral replication in nonproliferating cells. Through the use of oligonucleotide microarrays and high-throughput Western blotting we demonstrate that one of these proteins, gp120, induces the expression of(More)
Down-regulation of the initial burst of viremia during primary HIV infection is thought to be mediated predominantly by HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and the appearance of this response is associated with major perturbations of the T cell receptor repertoire. Changes in the T cell receptor repertoire of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes were(More)
Following infection of the host with a virus, the delicate balance between virus replication/spread and the immune response to the virus determines the outcome of infection, i.e., persistence versus elimination of the virus. It is unclear, however, what relative roles immunologic and virologic factors play during primary viral infection in determining the(More)
OBJECTIVE Increasing evidence suggests that miRNAs have a profound impact on host defense to Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and clinical outcome of standard HCV therapy. In this study, we investigated modulation of miRNA expression in Huh7.5 hepatoma cells by HCV infection and in vitro interferon-αtreatment. METHODS MiRNA expression profiling was(More)
We evaluated the effect of long-cycle structured intermittent therapy (SIT; 4 weeks without highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART] followed by 8 weeks with HAART) versus continuous HAART. The study was prematurely terminated to new enrollment because of the emergence of genetic mutations associated with resistance to antiretroviral drugs in 5(More)
A clear understanding of the antiviral effects of CD8(+) T cells in the context of chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is critical for the development of prophylactic vaccines and therapeutics designed to support T-cell-mediated immunity. However, defining the potential correlates of effective CD8(+) T-cell immunity has proven difficult;(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients, including those co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are at increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We evaluated the ability of agonistic human monoclonal antibodies to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors, mapatumumab and(More)