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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease is associated with loss of CD4(+) T cells, chronic immune activation, and progressive immune dysfunction. HIV-specific responses, particularly those of CD4(+) T cells, become impaired early after infection, before the loss of responses directed against other antigens; the basis for this diminution has not been(More)
OBJECTIVE Increasing evidence suggests that miRNAs have a profound impact on host defense to Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and clinical outcome of standard HCV therapy. In this study, we investigated modulation of miRNA expression in Huh7.5 hepatoma cells by HCV infection and in vitro interferon-αtreatment. METHODS MiRNA expression profiling was(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells play a central role in host defense against various pathogens. Functional defects of NK cells in HIV-1 infection as a direct effect of abnormal expression or function of inhibitory NK receptors (iNKRs), activating natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs), and NKG2D have not yet been described. This study demonstrates an expansion of(More)
In the present study, we have determined the kinetics of constitutive expression of a panel of cytokines [interleukin (IL) 2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)] in sequential peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from nine individuals with primary human immunodeficiency virus infection.(More)
Down-regulation of the initial burst of viremia during primary HIV infection is thought to be mediated predominantly by HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and the appearance of this response is associated with major perturbations of the T cell receptor repertoire. Changes in the T cell receptor repertoire of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes were(More)
Polymorphisms in the coding sequences of CCR5 and CXCR4 were studied in a group of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected long-term nonprogressors. Two different point mutations were found in the CXCR4 coding sequence. One of these CXCR4 mutations was silent, and each was unique to two nonprogressors. The well-described 32-bp deletion within the CCR5(More)
The persistence of latently infected, resting CD4+ T cells is considered to be a major obstacle in preventing the eradication of HIV-1 even in patients who have received effective antiviral therapy for an average duration of 5 years. Although previous studies have suggested that the latent HIV reservoir in the resting CD4+ T cell compartment is(More)
Certain HIV-encoded proteins modify host-cell gene expression in a manner that facilitates viral replication. These activities may contribute to low-level viral replication in nonproliferating cells. Through the use of oligonucleotide microarrays and high-throughput Western blotting we demonstrate that one of these proteins, gp120, induces the expression of(More)
Intermittent interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy can substantially increase CD4+ T cell counts of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects. Administration of IL-2 led to transient up-regulation of CCR5 on CD4+ T cells; up to 87% of CD4+ cells expressed CCR5 after a 5-day cycle, with return to baseline levels within 2 weeks. Unlike in vitro studies,(More)
Recombinant retroviruses are widely used for gene transfer into eukaryotic cells and exhibit significant potential for human gene therapy. Despite the utility of retroviral vectors, their design is still essentially empirical. We have constructed a series of reciprocal, double-gene vectors to compare the dual expression of beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) and(More)