Maryanne R. Hughes

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The following hypotheses were examined using Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) as a model for marine ducks: cadmium (Cd) intake affects (1) salt gland and/or kidney function of ducks and (2) osmoregulation differently in male and female ducks. Birds were fed 0, 50, or 300 microg Cd/g food. They were gradually acclimated to 450 mM NaCl and then drank 300 mM(More)
This study examined the effects of simultaneous exposure to saline and cadmium (Cd) on organ mass and histology of a bird with salt glands, the Pekin duck, Anas platyrhynchos. Three mixed-sex groups, each containing 6 birds, ate duck pellets containing 0, 50, or 300 microg Cd/g, respectively, for 4 1/2 mo and drank 300 mM NaCl. Only females on the high-Cd(More)
Hematocrit (Hct) and plasma ionic and osmotic concentrations were measured in Pekin Ducks, Anas platyrhynchos, drinking freshwater (FW), during rapid acclimation to sea water (RA), and after 6 mo exposure to 180-mM NaCl (SW). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and extracellular fluid volume (ECFV) were measured in FW and SW ducks. Estimated renal plasma flow(More)
The intestinal caeca reabsorb urinary sodium chloride (NaCl) and water (Rice and Skadhauge 1982). Free water may be generated if the reabsorbed NaCl is secreted via salt gland secretion (Schmidt-Nielsen et al. 1958). Therefore ceacal ligation should (a) reduce hingut NaCl and water reabsorption, (b) enhance the increase in plasma osmolality during saline(More)
Twenty-five monoclonal antibodies (Mab) to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and two to hepatitis B virus were inoculated intravenously into mice. Twenty-four hours later the mice were challenged intranasally with RSV. Eleven of 14 Mab against fusion protein and four out of six Mab against a larger glycoprotein (GP84) significantly reduced the titre of RSV(More)
The A2 strain of human respiratory syncytial virus replicated in the nose and lung of BALB/c mice, with virus growing to higher titers in older animals than in younger animals. Virus was recovered from the nose between days 2 and 7 with peak titers on days 3 and 4, and from the lungs between days 2 and 9, with peak titers on days 4 through 6. Serum antibody(More)
Effects of ingested cadmium (Cd) on body mass and plasma, urine, salt-gland secretion, and osmoregulatory hormone concentrations were assessed in male and female Pekin ducks, Anas platyrhynchos, acclimated to 450 mM NaCl over 6 wk and then held an additional 13 wk on 300 mM NaCl (prolonged saline exposure). Groups of six birds ate diets containing 0(More)
The physiological regulation of body water volume and concentration was evaluated in Pekin ducks, Anas platyrhynchos, slowly acclimated to increasingly saline drinking water (six equal 75 mM NaCl increments). Body mass, total body water (TBW), water flux, plasma osmolality (Osmpl), and ionic and osmoregulatory hormone concentrations were measured at the end(More)
Three processes central to osmoregulation of marine birds were compared in three species of ducks that differ in habitat affinity, diet and saline tolerance. These processes are filtration of Na+ and water from the plasma by the kidneys, their reabsorption along the renal tubules, and secretion by the salt glands. Barrow's goldeneyes Bucephala islandica,(More)
Glomerular filtration rate was measured in Glaucous-winged Gulls, Larus glaucescens, acclimated to freshwater or saline and was also measured (along with salt gland secretion) following intravenous and intragastric infusion of 700 mM sodium chloride (NaCl). Freshwater- and saline-acclimated gulls had the same mean glomerular filtration rate, 5.6 +/- 0.8 and(More)