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Phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)) play important roles in metabolic processes, and the Group VI PLA(2) family is comprised of intracellular enzymes that do not require Ca(2+) for catalysis. Mice deficient in Group VIA PLA(2) (iPLA(2)beta) develop more severe glucose intolerance than wild-type (WT) mice in response to dietary stress. Group VIB PLA(2)(More)
Upon differentiation, U937 promonocytic cells gain the ability to release a large fraction of arachidonate esterified in phospholipids when stimulated, but the mechanism is unclear. U937 cells express group IV phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), but neither its level nor its phosphorylation state increases upon differentiation. A group VI PLA(2) (iPLA(2)) that is(More)
Mutations in the PLA2G6 gene, which encodes group VIA calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA(2)beta), were recently identified in patients with infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) and neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. A pathological hallmark of these childhood neurodegenerative diseases is the presence of distinctive spheroids in distal(More)
The Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat is a genetic model of type II diabetes mellitus in which males homozygous for nonfunctional leptin receptors (fa/fa) develop obesity, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia, but rats homozygous for normal receptors (+/+) remain lean and normoglycemic. Insulin resistance develops in young fa/fa rats and is followed by evolution(More)
The Group VIA Phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)beta) is the first recognized cytosolic Ca(2+)-independent PLA(2) and has been proposed to participate in arachidonic acid (20:4) incorporation into glycerophosphocholine lipids, cell proliferation, exocytosis, apoptosis, and other processes. To study iPLA(2)beta functions, we disrupted its gene by homologous(More)
Calcium-independent phospholipase A(2) group VIA (iPLA(2)β) releases docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from phospholipids in vitro. Mutations in the iPLA(2)β gene, PLA2G6, are associated with dystonia-parkinsonism and infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy. To understand the role of iPLA(2)β in brain, we applied our in vivo kinetic method using radiolabeled DHA in 4 to(More)
Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A(2)β (iPLA(2)β) selectively hydrolyzes docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in vitro from phospholipid. Mutations in the PLA2G6 gene encoding this enzyme occur in patients with idiopathic neurodegeneration plus brain iron accumulation and dystonia-parkinsonism without iron accumulation, whereas mice lacking PLA2G6 show(More)
Studies involving pharmacologic or molecular biologic manipulation of Group VIA phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)beta) activity in pancreatic islets and insulinoma cells suggest that iPLA(2)beta participates in insulin secretion. It has also been suggested that iPLA(2)beta is a housekeeping enzyme that regulates cell 2-lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) levels and(More)
Studies with genetically modified insulinoma cells suggest that group VIA phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)beta) participates in amplifying glucose-induced insulin secretion. INS-1 insulinoma cells that overexpress iPLA(2)beta, for example, exhibit amplified insulin-secretory responses to glucose and cAMP-elevating agents. To determine whether similar effects(More)
Mouse macrophages undergo ER stress and apoptosis upon free cholesterol loading (FCL). We recently generated iPLA(2)beta-null mice, and here we demonstrate that iPLA(2)beta-null macrophages have reduced sensitivity to FCL-induced apoptosis, although they and wild-type (WT) cells exhibit similar increases in the transcriptional regulator CHOP.(More)