Mary W. Downton

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The poor relationship between what climatologists, hydrologists, and other physical scientists call floods, and those floods that actually cause damage to life or property, has limited what can be reliably said about the causes of observed trends in damaging floods. It further limits what can be said about future impacts of floods on society based on(More)
In the Expanded Clinical Evaluation of Lovastatin (EXCEL) Study, a multicenter, double-blind, diet- and placebo-controlled trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of lovastatin in 8245 patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia. Patients were randomly assigned to receive placebo or lovastatin at a dosage of 20 mg once daily, 40 mg once daily, 20 mg(More)
This randomized, double-blind, multicenter, diet-and-placebo-controlled study was designed to clarify the dose-response relationship of lovastatin therapy to lipid-modifying efficacy and drug-related adverse events. Exclusion criteria were minimized so that study patients were representative of the majority of patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia(More)
The use of photographs as surrogates for field observations is common in studies of perception and judgment of the visual environment despite theoretically important differences betwan photographs and three-dimensional scenes. The few available empirical studies of the validity of photographs as reprexntations of the visual environment have methodological(More)
Worldwide, the costs of natural disasters have increased dramatically in recent decades (Swiss Re 1997). Many in the insurance and reinsurance industries have noted this increase and simultaneously become aware that their exposure to catastrophic losses has been underestimated (Campbell 1997). One result of this greater attention to the risks of(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of lovastatin in women with moderate hypercholesterolemia. DESIGN The Expanded Clinical Evaluation of Lovastatin (EXCEL) Study, a multicenter, double-blind, diet- and placebo-controlled trial, in which participants were randomly assigned to receive placebo or lovastatin at doses of 20 or 40 mg once daily, or(More)
A paucity of substantive data from clinical drug trials is available specifically evaluating the effects of therapy for hypercholesterolemia in African-Americans, even though a substantial number are candidates for medical advice and intervention for high blood cholesterol. The efficacy and safety of lovastatin in 459 African-Americans with(More)
To understand the nature of increasing flood damage in the United States, accurate data are needed on costs and vulnerability associated with flooding. The National Weather Service (NWS) is the only organization that has maintained a long-term historical record of flood damage throughout the country. The NWS estimates are obtained from diverse sources,(More)