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RBM and DAZ/SPGY are two families of genes located on the Y chromosome that encode proteins containing RNA-binding motifs, and both have been described as candidate human spermatogenesis genes. Transmission of deletions from father to son has been observed in the case of DAZ, but neither gene family has been shown to be essential for spermatogenesis in(More)
The autosomal gene DAZL is a member of a family of genes (DAZL, DAZ, BOULE), all of which contain a consensus RNA binding domain and are expressed in germ cells. Adult male and female mice null for Dazl lack gametes. In order to define more precisely the developmental stages in germ cells that require Dazl expression, the patterns of germ cell loss in(More)
Gametogenesis is a complex process subject to strict controls at both levels of transcription and translation. Members of a family of conserved RNA-binding proteins encoded by the DAZ genes are required for the translational regulation of gene expression essential for this process. Although loss of DAZ family genes is associated with infertility in several(More)
Retrotransposons are highly prevalent in mammalian genomes due to their ability to amplify in pluripotent cells or developing germ cells. Host mechanisms that silence retrotransposons in germ cells and pluripotent cells are important for limiting the accumulation of the repetitive elements in the genome during evolution. However, although silencing of(More)
About 1% of the mouse genome is cleaved by Hpa II to give a discrete fraction on gels. The nonmethylated fraction is present in all tested tissues, including sperm, and contains Hpa II sites at about 15 times their frequency in bulk DNA. About 80% of the fraction is composed of sequences that occur once or a few times per genome; the remainder is largely(More)
In mammals, the synaptonemal complex is a structure required to complete crossover recombination. Although suggested by cytological work, in vivo links between the structural proteins of the synaptonemal complex and the proteins of the recombination process have not previously been made. The central element of the synaptonemal complex is traversed by DNA at(More)
Uterine dystocia, often of unknown cause, remains one of the commonest causes of emergency caesarean section. We have tested the hypothesis that small acidic changes in pH, that can occur during labour contractions, can decrease contractions and contribute to dystocia. We simultaneously recorded intracellular pH (pHi) and force in human myometrium:(More)
The rRNA genes of Xenopus blood cells are heavily methylated, but there are two regions in the spacer that frequently contain unmethylated CpG. The undermethylated regions coincide with two regions containing a 60 nucleotide tandemly repeated sequence, and they are present in all somatic tissues that we have tested. Sperm rDNA, by contrast, is fully(More)
Synapsis is the process by which paired chromosome homologues closely associate in meiosis before crossover. In the synaptonemal complex (SC), axial elements of each homologue connect through molecules of SYCP1 to the central element, which contains the proteins SYCE1 and -2. We have derived mice lacking SYCE2 protein, producing males and females in which(More)