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Toll-like receptors (TLR) are pattern recognition receptors that recognize conserved molecular patterns on microbes and link innate and adaptive immune systems. We investigated whether the enhanced susceptibility to bacterial, yeast, and viral infections and poor adaptive immune responses in aging are a result of diminished expression and function of TLRs.(More)
Influenza vaccines that induce greater cross-reactive or heterosubtypic immunity (Het-I) may overcome limitations in vaccine efficacy imposed by the antigenic variability of influenza A viruses. We have compared mucosal versus traditional parenteral administration of inactivated influenza vaccine for the ability to induce Het-I in BALB/c mice and evaluated(More)
Influenza vaccination practice, which is based on neutralizing antibodies, requires being able to predict which viral strains will be circulating. If an unexpected strain, as in the 1997 H5N1 Hong Kong outbreak, or even a pandemic emerges, appropriate vaccines may take too long to prepare. Therefore, strategies based on conserved influenza antigens should(More)
Induction of heterosubtypic immunity to influenza viral antigens is of paramount importance to the prevention of epidemics and potential pandemics. The 1997 incidence of avian influenza infections in humans in Hong Kong heightened the need for pandemic preparedness and a search for vaccines and vaccine delivery systems that can confer broad protection. In(More)
To determine whether or not the PAI-1 4G/5G and t-PA I/D polymorphisms in African-Americans were linked to cardiovascular disease, the association of these polymorphisms to disease expression was analyzed in a recently completed case-control study of myocardial infarction or venous thromboembolism among African-Americans. All African-Americans patients with(More)
The protein C/protein S anticoagulant pathway has been proposed to be a common link between coagulation and inflammation. Studies have suggested that a component of the anticoagulant pathway, activated protein C (APC), may play a role in the inflammatory response by modulating the effects of cytokines such as TNF and by blocking neutrophil activation.(More)
Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is a putative risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Molecular studies have demonstrated increased plasma homocysteine levels in the presence of DNA mutations in either the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme found in the remethylation pathway or the enzyme cystathione beta-synthase (CBS) of the transsulfuration(More)
Avian influenza A H9N2 viruses are widespread among domestic poultry and were recently isolated from humans with respiratory illness in China. Two antigenically and genetically distinct groups of H9N2 viruses (G1 and G9) are prevalent in China. To evaluate a strategy for vaccination, we compared G1 and G9 viruses for their relative immunogenicity and(More)
Classically, activated protein C (APC) of the protein C/protein S anticoagulant pathway has functioned not only to inactivate the procoagulant factors Va and VIIIa but also to inhibit the activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). More recent data have suggested that the protein C/protein S pathway may serve as a physiological link between(More)