Mary P. E. Slack

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BACKGROUND There are few epidemiologic data on invasive bacterial infections among children in sub-Saharan Africa. We studied every acute pediatric admission to a rural district hospital in Kenya to examine the prevalence, incidence, types, and outcome of community-acquired bacteremia. METHODS Between August 1998 and July 2002, we cultured blood on(More)
BACKGROUND The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) protects against key serotypes that increased after routine immunisation with the seven-valent vaccine (PCV7), but its potential for herd protection and serotype replacement is uncertain. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on invasive(More)
In 2003 the existing 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) programme for high risk groups was extended to include all ≥ 65 year olds in England and Wales, starting with ≥ 80 year olds and moving to 75-79 and 65-74 year olds by 2005. We conducted an ecological study to assess the impact of the extended PPV23 programme on serotype-specific incidence of(More)
CONTEXT Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine is not perceived as a public health priority in Africa because data on Hib disease burden and vaccine effectiveness are scarce. Hib immunization was introduced in Kenyan infants in 2001. OBJECTIVE To define invasive Hib disease incidence and Hib vaccine program effectiveness in Kenya. DESIGN,(More)
Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a major cause of mucosal infections such as otitis media, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In some regions, a strong causal relation links this pathogen with infections of the lower respiratory tract. In the past 20 years, a steady but constant increase has(More)
An international collaboration was established in 1996 to monitor the impact of routine Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination on invasive H. influenzae disease; 14 countries routinely serotype all clinical isolates. Of the 10,081 invasive H. influenzae infections reported during 1996-2006, 4,466 (44%, incidence 0.28 infections/100,000 population)(More)
Efficacy of the new serotypes in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was based on a putative correlate of protection. In England and Wales, PCV13 replaced PCV7 in the 2, 4, and 13 month schedule in April 2010. Using non-vaccine type IPD cases as controls, we estimated vaccine effectiveness (VE)(More)
BACKGROUND Efficacy of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was inferred before licensure from an aggregate correlate of protection established for the seven-valent vaccine (PCV7). We did a postlicensure assessment of serotype-specific vaccine effectiveness and immunogenicity in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland to derive the correlates(More)
BACKGROUND Transmission and nasopharyngeal colonization are necessary steps en route to invasive pneumococcal or Haemophilus influenzae disease but their patterns vary geographically. In East Africa we do not know how these pathogens are transmitted between population subgroups nor which serotypes circulate commonly. METHODS We did 2 cross-sectional(More)
The introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in September 2006 has markedly reduced the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) including meningitis in England and Wales. This study examined changes in the molecular epidemiology of pneumococcal isolates causing meningitis from July 2004 to June 2009. The Health Protection(More)