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There is compelling evidence linking bradykinin (BK) with the pathophysiological processes that accompany tissue damage and inflammation, especially the production of pain and hyperalgesia. Several mechanisms have been proposed to account for hyperalgesia including the direct activation of nociceptors as well as sensitization of nociceptors through the(More)
The neuropeptide neuromedin U (NMU) has been shown to have significant effects on cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and CNS functions. The peptide was first isolated from the porcine spinal cord and later shown to be present in spinal cords of other species. Little is known about the distribution of neuromedin U receptors (NMURs) in the spinal cord and the(More)
Opioid receptors in the brain activate descending pain pathways to inhibit the nociceptive response to acute noxious stimuli. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of supraspinal opioid receptors in modulating the nociceptive response to persistent inflammation in rats. Subcutaneous administration of 50 microl of complete Freund's Adjuvant(More)
It is well established that electrical stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) causes a reduction in food intake, whereas electrolytic or chemical lesions in this area result in hyperphagia and obesity in the rat. This has led to the suggestion that either the ventromedial nucleus itself, or nerve fibres passing close by, are important in the(More)
Astrocytes (both type 1 and type 2), cultured from the central nervous system of newborn or 7 day old rats show voltage gated sodium and potassium channels that are activated when the membrane is depolarized to greater than -40 mV. The sodium channels in these cells have an h-infinity curve similar to that of nodal membranes but the activation (peak(More)
In an in vitro preparation of the neonatal spinal cord with the tail attached, brief administration of bradykinin or capsaicin in the tail superfusate containing a normal calcium concentration, activated peripheral fibres and produced a depolarization recorded at a spinal ventral root (L3-L5). Perfusion with a phorbol ester (4 beta-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate,(More)
1. The role of bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors in bradykinin- and des-Arg9-bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation in normal and inflamed rat knee joints was investigated by use of an antigen-induced model of chronic arthritis. A modification of an Evans blue extraction technique allowed the unstimulated (basal) plasma extravasation to be assessed in this(More)
Following incubation with [14C]gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or [3H]dopamine, slices of rat striatum were superfused with media containing 36 mM K+ or ethylenediamine (EDA), 1 or 5 mM. Both K+ and EDA induced a release being largely Ca2+-dependent, while the EDA-induced release was not. Whereas K+ also evoked a Ca2+-dependent release of [3H]dopamine, EDA(More)