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The sequence diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) represents a major obstacle to the development of an effective vaccine, yet the forces impacting the evolution of this pathogen remain unclear. To address this issue we assessed the relationship between genome-wide viral evolution and adaptive CD8+ T-cell responses in four clade B(More)
BACKGROUND HLA-B57, as well as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses restricted by this allele, have been strongly associated with long-term non-progressive chronic HIV-1 infection. However, their impact on viral replication during acute HIV-1 infection is not known. METHODS Clinical and immunological parameters during acute and early HIV-1 infection in(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are critical in the first-line defense against viral infections. Chronic HIV-1 infection leads to a perturbation in the NK cell compartment, yet the kinetics of this deregulation and the functional consequences are unclear. Here, we characterized changes in the NK cell compartment longitudinally by multiparameter flow cytometry,(More)
BACKGROUND Early treatment of acute HIV infection with highly active antiretroviral therapy, followed by supervised treatment interruption (STI), has been associated with at least transient control of viremia. However, the durability of such control remains unclear. Here we present longitudinal follow-up of a single-arm, open-label study assessing the(More)
CD8(+) T cells play a crucial role in the control of viral infections by direct elimination of infected cells and secretion of a number of soluble factors. Recent data suggest that HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T cell subsets may differ in their ability to exert these effector functions. Here, we directly compared the cytokine secretion patterns and cytotoxic(More)
Transfection with synthetic mRNA is a safe and efficient method of delivering antigens to dendritic cells for immunotherapy. Targeting antigens to the lysosome can sometimes enhance the CD4+ T-cell response. We transfected antigen-presenting cells (APCs) with mRNA encoding Gag-p24 and cytoplasmic, lysosomal, and secreted forms of Nef. Antigen-specific(More)
Cellular immune responses play a critical role in the control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1); however, the breadth of these responses at the single-epitope level has not been comprehensively assessed. We therefore screened peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 57 individuals at different stages of HIV-1 infection for virus-specific(More)
Early treatment of acute HIV-1 infection followed by treatment interruptions has shown promise for enhancing immune control of infection. A subsequent loss of control, however, allows the correlates of protective immunity to be assessed. Here we show that sudden breakthrough of plasma viraemia occurred after prolonged immune containment in an individual(More)
BACKGROUND Very little is known about the immunodominance patterns of HIV-1-specific T cell responses during primary HIV-1 infection and the reasons for human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) modulation of disease progression. METHODS AND FINDINGS In a cohort of 104 individuals with primary HIV-1 infection, we demonstrate that a subset of CD8(+) T cell epitopes(More)
Virus-specific CD8(+) T cells are associated with declining viremia in acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)1 infection, but do not correlate with control of viremia in chronic infection, suggesting a progressive functional defect not measured by interferon gamma assays presently used. Here, we demonstrate that HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T cells proliferate(More)