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We describe the Phase II HapMap, which characterizes over 3.1 million human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 270 individuals from four geographically diverse populations and includes 25-35% of common SNP variation in the populations surveyed. The map is estimated to capture untyped common variation with an average maximum r2 of between(More)
With the advent of dense maps of human genetic variation, it is now possible to detect positive natural selection across the human genome. Here we report an analysis of over 3 million polymorphisms from the International HapMap Project Phase 2 (HapMap2). We used 'long-range haplotype' methods, which were developed to identify alleles segregating in a(More)
The four core histone proteins, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 of Xenopus laevis have been individually expressed in milligram quantities in Escherichia coli. The full-length proteins and the "trypsin-resistant" globular domains were purified under denaturing conditions and folded into histone octamers. Both intact and truncated recombinant octamers, as well as(More)
OBJECTIVE Ginkgo biloba was found to exert a significant inductive effect on CYP2C19 activity. This study was designed to investigate the potential herb-drug interaction between G. biloba and omeprazole, a widely used CYP2C19 substrate, in subjects with different CYP2C19 genotypes. METHODS Eighteen healthy Chinese subjects previously genotyped for CYP2C19(More)
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective treatment for cancer by inducing apoptosis or necrosis in the target cells. Pheophorbide a (Pa), a chlorophyll derivative, is a photosensitzier which can induce significant anti-proliferative effects in a number of human cancer cell lines. This study investigated the action mechanism of Pa-mediated photodynamic(More)
BACKGROUND Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genome-wide association study revealed that markers on chromosome 17q21 were linked to childhood asthma but not atopy in Caucasians, with the strongest signal being detected for the SNP rs7216389 in the ORMDL3 gene. Such association was unknown in Chinese. This study delineated the allele and genotype(More)
Previously, we identified a new mammalian sHSP, MKBP, as a myotonic dystrophy protein kinase-binding protein, and suggested its important role in muscle maintenance (Suzuki, A., Sugiyama, Y., Hayashi, Y., Nyu-i, N., Yoshida, M., Nonaka, I., Ishiura, S., Arahata, K., and Ohno, S. (1998) J. Cell Biol. 140, 1113-1124). In this paper, we develop the former work(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine-threonine kinase that exists as two isoforms, alpha and beta, encoded by separate genes. Phosphorylation targets include a variety of cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins. Recent studies found that neurofilaments, amyloid precursor protein, and tau proteins are substrates of GSK-3 and that aberrant phosphorylation(More)
LIM domain proteins are found to be important regulators in cell growth, cell fate determination, cell differentiation, and remodeling of the cell cytoskeleton. Human Four-and-a-half LIM-only protein 2 (FHL2) is expressed predominantly in human heart and is only slightly expressed in skeletal muscle. Since FHL2 is an abundant protein in human heart, it may(More)
Recently, a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified to be associated with late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) through genome-wide association study data. Identification of SNP-SNP interaction played an important role in better understanding genetic basis of LOAD. In this study, fifty-eight SNPs were screened in a cohort of 229 LOAD(More)