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Extinction therapy has been proposed as a method to reduce the motivational impact of drug-associated cues to prevent relapse. Cue extinction therapy, however, takes place in a novel context (e.g., treatment facility), and is unlikely to be effective due to the context specificity of extinction. We tested the hypothesis that d-cycloserine (DCS), which(More)
Chronic stress during adolescence is associated with an increased risk for alcoholism and addictive disorders. Addiction is also associated with increased impulsivity, and stress during adolescence could alter cortical circuits responsible for response inhibition. Therefore, the present study determined the effect of chronic exposure to the stress hormone(More)
Differences between men and women in alcohol abuse prevalence have long been attributed to social and hormonal factors. It is, however, becoming apparent that sex differences in substance dependence are also influenced by genetic factors. Using a four core genotype mouse model that enables dissociation of chromosomal and gonadal sex, we show that habitual(More)
Drug addiction is a progressive and compulsive disorder, where recurrent craving and relapse to drug-seeking occur even after long periods of abstinence. A major contributing factor to relapse is drug-associated cues. Here we review behavioral and pharmacological studies outlining novel methods of effective and persistent reductions in cue-induced relapse(More)
Systemically active, nonpeptidic delta opioid receptor agonists have been shown to produce antidepressant and anxiolytic effects in animal models in rodents. In addition, delta agonists have been shown to increase expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA, an effect of some antidepressants, which may be important for the clinical efficacy(More)
Systemic administration of delta-opioid receptor (DOR) agonists decreases immobility in the forced swim test (FST) and increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression in rats, indicating that DOR agonists may have antidepressant-like effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of central administration of endogenous(More)
delta-Opioid receptor agonists have antidepressant-like effects in behavioral models of depression. Chronic administration of classical antidepressants upregulates mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its high-affinity tyrosine kinase receptor, TrkB in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats. Increases in BDNF and TrkB levels(More)
One strategy proposed to treat addictive disorders is to extinguish the association between environmental stimuli (cues) and actions associated with drug use to reduce relapse. The context specificity of extinction learning, however, impairs the ability of addicts to generalize extinction training to the drug-taking context. We previously reported that the(More)
We recorded neuronal activity simultaneously in the medial and lateral regions of the dorsal striatum as rats learned an operant task. The task involved making head entries into a response port followed by movements to collect rewards at an adjacent reward port. The availability of sucrose reward was signaled by an acoustic stimulus. During training,(More)
The development of addictive behavior is marked by a loss of behavioral flexibility. In part, this is due to an increase in the ability of environmental stimuli to elicit responding and decreased importance of the action-outcome relationship in behavioral control. It has previously been demonstrated that both inactivation of and dopamine (DA) infusions in(More)