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Chronic stress during adolescence is associated with an increased risk for alcoholism and addictive disorders. Addiction is also associated with increased impulsivity, and stress during adolescence could alter cortical circuits responsible for response inhibition. Therefore, the present study determined the effect of chronic exposure to the stress hormone(More)
Drug addiction is a progressive and compulsive disorder, where recurrent craving and relapse to drug-seeking occur even after long periods of abstinence. A major contributing factor to relapse is drug-associated cues. Here we review behavioral and pharmacological studies outlining novel methods of effective and persistent reductions in cue-induced relapse(More)
Extinction therapy has been proposed as a method to reduce the motivational impact of drug-associated cues to prevent relapse. Cue extinction therapy, however, takes place in a novel context (e.g., treatment facility), and is unlikely to be effective due to the context specificity of extinction. We tested the hypothesis that d-cycloserine (DCS), which(More)
We recorded neuronal activity simultaneously in the medial and lateral regions of the dorsal striatum as rats learned an operant task. The task involved making head entries into a response port followed by movements to collect rewards at an adjacent reward port. The availability of sucrose reward was signaled by an acoustic stimulus. During training,(More)
Differences between men and women in alcohol abuse prevalence have long been attributed to social and hormonal factors. It is, however, becoming apparent that sex differences in substance dependence are also influenced by genetic factors. Using a four core genotype mouse model that enables dissociation of chromosomal and gonadal sex, we show that habitual(More)
delta-Opioid receptor agonists have antidepressant-like effects in behavioral models of depression. Chronic administration of classical antidepressants upregulates mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its high-affinity tyrosine kinase receptor, TrkB in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats. Increases in BDNF and TrkB levels(More)
Drug addiction is a chronic disorder associated with recurrent craving and relapse often precipitated by the presence of drug-associated stimuli. Pharmacological and behavioral treatments that disrupt drug-associated stimulus memories could be beneficial in the treatment of addictive disorders. Memory restabilization (or reconsolidation) following retrieval(More)
Over the past several years, drug addiction has increasingly been accepted to be a disease of the brain as opposed to simply being due to a lack of willpower or personality flaw. Exposure to addictive substances has been shown to create enduring changes in brain structure and function that are thought to underlie the transition to addiction. Specific(More)
Finding effective long-lasting treatments for drug addiction has been an elusive goal. Consequently, researchers are beginning to investigate novel treatment strategies including manipulations of drug-associated memories. When environmental stimuli (cues) become associated with drug use, they become powerful motivators of continued drug use and relapse(More)
Systemic administration of delta-opioid receptor (DOR) agonists decreases immobility in the forced swim test (FST) and increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression in rats, indicating that DOR agonists may have antidepressant-like effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of central administration of endogenous(More)