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Cognitive impairments in humans and animals have been linked to dysfunction of neurons in the basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS). Degeneration of these cells may be, in part, responsible for some of the cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although memory deficits are associated with lesions of the BFCS in rats, impairments in(More)
Aging produces changes in a variety of neural systems that result in a distinct neuropsychological profile of cognitive deficits. To determine the extent of functional decline in cognition with aging, the authors assessed attentional ability in adult (10-15 years old) and aged (28-33 years old) rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in 3 experiments, using a(More)
CONTEXT Human menopause is characterized by ovarian failure, gonadotropin hypersecretion, and neuronal hypertrophy in the hypothalamic infundibular (arcuate) nucleus. Recent studies have demonstrated a critical role for kisspeptins in reproductive regulation, but it is not known whether menopause is accompanied by changes in hypothalamic kisspeptin neurons.(More)
Estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal women is associated with changes in physiological processes. The extent to which estrogen loss is associated with cognitive changes noted by postmenopausal women has been more difficult to determine for a variety of reasons. Primate models of menopause are now being used to determine the effects of estrogen loss and(More)
The ability to learn and perform reversals of two object, two patterns, and one spatial discrimination was examined in eight aged (28-34 years), and four adult (8-13 years) behaviorally naive monkeys. As a group, the aged monkeys demonstrated significant difficulties in learning and reversing some of the visual discrimination problems, but had no difficulty(More)
Caloric restriction (CR) reduces the pathological effects of aging and extends the lifespan in many species, including nonhuman primates, although the effect on the brain is less well characterized. We used two common indicators of aging, motor performance speed and brain iron deposition measured in vivo using MRI, to determine the potential effect of CR on(More)
This chapter has been organized empirically, focusing on the types of approaches that have been taken to understand BFCS function. This approach reflects the state of our knowledge about the behavioral and psychological functions of the BFCS. Considerable information has been gathered in the very short time that the BFCS has been the object of intense(More)
In the present study, we compared the morphology and distribution of neurons expressing GnRH gene transcripts in the hypothalamus and forebrain of the cynomolgus monkey to that of the human. As in the human, three subtypes of GnRH neurons were identified. Type I GnRH neurons were small, oval cells with high levels of gene expression and were located within(More)
Many postmenopausal women question whether to start or continue hormone therapy because of recent clinical trial negative results. However, evidence from other studies of postmenopausal women, and from studies in menopausal monkeys, indicate that estrogen has neurocognitive protective effects, particularly when therapy is initiated close to the time of(More)
Three monkeys were trained to remember colored photographs of objects over delays of 0, 15, 30, and 45 s. Then two pairs of cooling devices were implanted bilaterally over the anterior 9 mm of the temporal lobe. The devices consisted of 3 X 10 mm loops of stainless steel tubing into which cooled methanol could be pumped. One pair (anterior pair) covered the(More)