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Estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal women is associated with changes in physiological processes. The extent to which estrogen loss is associated with cognitive changes noted by postmenopausal women has been more difficult to determine for a variety of reasons. Primate models of menopause are now being used to determine the effects of estrogen loss and(More)
This chapter has been organized empirically, focusing on the types of approaches that have been taken to understand BFCS function. This approach reflects the state of our knowledge about the behavioral and psychological functions of the BFCS. Considerable information has been gathered in the very short time that the BFCS has been the object of intense(More)
Three monkeys were trained to remember colored photographs of objects over delays of 0, 15, 30, and 45 s. Then two pairs of cooling devices were implanted bilaterally over the anterior 9 mm of the temporal lobe. The devices consisted of 3 X 10 mm loops of stainless steel tubing into which cooled methanol could be pumped. One pair (anterior pair) covered the(More)
Caloric restriction (CR) reduces the pathological effects of aging and extends the lifespan in many species, including nonhuman primates, although the effect on the brain is less well characterized. We used two common indicators of aging, motor performance speed and brain iron deposition measured in vivo using MRI, to determine the potential effect of CR on(More)
The present study examined the long-term (2 years) effects of estrogen loss or estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert and on cholinergic fibers in the prefrontal and parietal cortex of adult female cynomolgus monkeys. Cholinergic fiber density in layer II of the prefrontal cortex was decreased in monkeys(More)
Cognitive impairments in humans and animals have been linked to dysfunction of neurons in the basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS). Degeneration of these cells may be, in part, responsible for some of the cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although memory deficits are associated with lesions of the BFCS in rats, impairments in(More)
Cold was used to suppress the function of subdivisions of the inferotemporal cortex. Three cryodes were placed bilaterally, one over the lower bank of the superior temporal sulcus (sts), one over the middle temporal gyrus (mtg) and one over the inferior temporal gyrus (itg). The animals were tested with delayed match-to-sample (DMS) and simultaneous visual(More)
The cholinergic hypothesis of memory dysfunction originally proposed that dysfunction of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS) may be responsible for the memory deficits associated with aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This hypothesis directed focus on the BFCS in experimental animal models of AD. In contrast to numerous(More)
This study determined the effects of estrogen on attention and motor speed in young monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Performance on visuospatial attention and reaction time motor tasks was measured before ovariectomy, for 2 months after ovariectomy, and at 14 months after treatment with placebo or estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Release time on invalid(More)
The ability to learn and perform reversals of two object, two patterns, and one spatial discrimination was examined in eight aged (28-34 years), and four adult (8-13 years) behaviorally naive monkeys. As a group, the aged monkeys demonstrated significant difficulties in learning and reversing some of the visual discrimination problems, but had no difficulty(More)