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A murine model was used to assess the role of cytokines in initiating protective T-cell-mediated immunity in the lung. A pulmonary infection was initiated by intratracheal inoculation of Cryptococcus neoformans (Cne). Previously, we had established that Cne lung clearance was mouse-strain-specific: C.B-17 mice were resistant and developed a Th1-like(More)
Bioweapons are most often designed for delivery to the lung, although this route is not the usual portal of entry for many of the pathogens in the natural environment. Vaccines and therapeutics that are efficacious for natural routes of infection may not be effective against the pulmonary route. Pulmonary models are needed to investigate the importance of(More)
Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent of anthrax, produces at least three primary virulence factors: lethal toxin, edema toxin, and a capsule. The capsule is absolutely required for dissemination and lethality in a murine model of inhalation anthrax, yet the roles for the toxins during infection are ill-defined. We show in a murine model that when spores(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are bone marrow-derived cells of both lymphoid and myeloid stem cell origin that populate all lymphoid organs including the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes, as well as nearly all nonlymphoid tissues and organs. Although DCs are a moderately diverse set of cells, they all have potent antigen-presenting capacity for stimulating naive,(More)
Increasing evidence indicates that T cell-dependent, interferon gamma (IFN gamma)-induced activation of murine macrophages and nitric oxide (NO) production plays an important role in host defenses against many microorganisms. A role for this mechanism in pulmonary defenses against infectious agents has not been examined. Previous studies demonstrated that(More)
The role of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in mediating pulmonary clearance of a cryptococcal infection was investigated. Intratracheal inoculation of BALB/c and C.B-17 mice with a moderately virulent strain of Cryptococcus neoformans (52D) resulted in a pulmonary infection, which was cleared by a T cell-dependent mechanism. During this clearance, there was a(More)
Moderately virulent strains of Cryptococcus neoformans, inoculated via the trachea, cause a pulmonary infection in BALB/c mice that was gradually resolved by T lymphocyte-dependent mechanisms. The current studies, using monoclonal antibodies to deplete T cell subsets, demonstrated that CD4+ and CD8+ T cells combined to mediate a prominent pulmonary(More)
CBA/J (highly resistant), BALB/c (moderately resistant), and C57BL/6 (susceptible) mice displayed three resistance patterns following intratracheal inoculation of Cryptococcus neoformans 52. The inability to clear the infection correlated with the duration of the eosinophil infiltrate in the lungs. The role of IL-5 in promoting the pulmonary eosinophilia(More)
T cell-mediated immunity has been shown to play an important role in the host defense to Cryptococcus neoformans. Infections due to C. neoformans are increased in patients with AIDS who are deficient in the CD4+ subset of T lymphocytes. Thus, the effect of CD4+ (L3T4+) lymphocyte depletion on murine host defenses to C. neoformans was studied. The mAb GK 1.5(More)
T cells are important in systemic anticryptococcal defenses, but a role in controlling an initial pulmonary infection has not been demonstrated. A murine model with intratracheal inoculation was developed to study the acquisition and expression of pulmonary T cell-mediated immunity against Cryptococcus neoformans. Infections with four strains of C.(More)