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BACKGROUND The reinforcing effects of nicotine are mediated by brain regions that also support temporal difference error (TDE) processing; yet, the impact of nicotine on TDE is undetermined. METHODS Dependent smokers (n = 21) and matched control subjects (n = 21) were trained to associate a juice reward with a visual cue in a classical conditioning(More)
BACKGROUND Dopaminergic activity plays a role in mediating the rewarding aspects of abused drugs, including nicotine. Nicotine modulates the reinforcing properties of other motivational stimuli, yet the mechanisms of this interaction are poorly understood. This study aimed to ascertain the impact of nicotine exposure on neuronal activity associated with(More)
The emergence of complex global challenges at the convergence of human, animal, and environmental health has catalyzed a movement supporting "One Health" approaches. Despite recognition of the importance of One Health approaches to address these complex challenges, little effort has been directed at identifying the seminal knowledge, skills, and attitudes(More)
In many domains, scientists build complex simulators of natural phenomena that encode their hypotheses about the underlying processes. These simulators can be deterministic or stochastic, fast or slow, constrained or unconstrained, and so on. Optimizing the simulators with respect to a set of parameter values is common practice, resulting in a single(More)
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